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Военное дело Give peacekeeping muscle to the United Nations
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The need for a standing United Nations military force to fulfill the organization's prime mission of maintaining peace has become almost a cliche of international rhetoric. The idea figured in the charter from the very beginning, has been urged ever since. The end of the Cold War has seen not a reduction but an increase in the number of open conflicts and appeals to the UN to restore peace. The United Nations, being all the nations, cannot and must not have enemies, but it does have principles and practices to defend. Therefore, if the organization considers itself serious, these principles must be defended seriously and vigorously. Getting a better, more effective peacekeeping job out of the United Nations is obviously in the world's interest. It requires a shift in attitude We should demand peaceful results.

2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words and phrases.A shift in attitude; an appeal to (smb); an increase in; a charter; to restore peace; peacekeeping; in the world's interest; a standing military force; to defend; to maintain peace; a reduction. 3. Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases.Восстанавливать мир; сокращение; изменение отношения; сохранять мир; в интересах мира; увеличение числа; призыв к; постоянный во­енный контингент; устав; защищать; миротворчество.

­1. Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words and phrases in the dictionary.

How the UN worksThe United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership now totals nearly 200 countries. When states become members of the United Nations, they agree to accept the obligations of the UN Charter, an international treaty which sets out basic principles of international relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.

UN members are sovereign countries. The United Nations is not a world government,, and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us. The United Nations is much more than a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution. Often without attracting attention, the United Nations is engaged in a vast array of work that touches every aspect of people's lives around the world. Child survival and development. Environmental protection. Human rights. Health and medical research. Alleviation of poverty and economic development. Agricultural development and fisheries. Education. Family planning. Emergency and disaster relief. Air and sea travel. Peaceful uses of atomic energy. Labour and worker's rights. The list goes on and on.

The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them — the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat — are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at the Hague, the Netherlands.

The General AssemblyAll UN member states are represented in the General Assembly — a kind of parliament of nations which meets to consider the world's most Blessing problems. Each member state has one vote. Decisions on important matters," such as international peace and security, admitting members, the UN budget are decided by two-thirds majority. Othermatters are decided by simple majority. In recent years, a special effort has been made to reach decisions through consensus, rather than by formal vote.

The Assembly holds its annual regular session from September to December. When necessary, it may resume its session, or hold a special or emergency session on subjects of particular concern.

The Security CouncilThe UN Charter gives the Security Council primary responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security. The Council may convene at any time, day or night, whenever peace is threatened.

There are 15 Council members. Five of these — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States — are permanent members. The other 10 are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. Decisions of the Council require nine yes votes.