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Высокие технологии Certification of products
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Quality of products and its indexes

МETROLOGY. STANDARDIZATION. QUALITY OF PRODUCTS

LECTURE №4

  1. Metrology and its tasks
  2. Standartization. Categories of normative documents on standardization

1. Metrology is a science about measurings, methods of providing of their unity and required exactness (DSTU 2681-94).

In a modern society M. as science about measurings and a field of practical activity plays a large role. There is no a single sphere of human activity whithout measuring. The information about the state of productional, economic and social processes can be get on the basis of meas­urings.

Measuring information is the basic object of exchange at the joint decision of scientific and technical problems, the basis of mutual calculations at the trade operations, conclusions of different contracts on supply of materials, wares, equipment.

The providing of measurings unity is secured by government and department metrology services.

2. Standartization is the process of establishment and application of common rules with the purpose of organization of activity in certain industry.

A standard is a normative document which sets the common rules for general and multi­ple applications, general principles or descriptions for the different types of activity or its re­sults.

Стандартизация может быть международной, региональной и националь­ной.

Standardization can be international, regional and national.

¨ International S.is the standardization which is conducted at an international level, par­ticipation in which is opened for the proper organs of every country in the world. In particu­lar, in 1947 the international organization on standardization – ISO (Internatinal Standart Or­ganization, ISO) was founded. 25 countries were its paticipants. ISO today includes national organizations of 163 countries (including Ukraine).

ISO develops the standards in all the areas of human activity except the electrical engineering, electronics and communication which are included in jurisdiction of IEC- the International Elecrotechnical Commission.

There is a row of other international organizations on international standardization (IAEA - the International Agency on Atomic Energy, МАГАТЭ; IMCO – Int. Marine Consul­tive Org.,UNESCO – United Nations Educa­tional Scientific and Cultural Organization).

¨ Regional standardizationis standardization which is conducted on a regional level, participation in which is opened for the proper organs of countries of certain economic or geo­graphical place.

¨ National standardization is standardization at the level of one country.

In Ukraine the State committee of Ukraine on standardization, metrology and certifica­tion organizes and co-ordinates the works on standardization - National Standard of Ukraine.

The national standards of Ukraine can be divided on the followings groups:

- State standards of Ukraine DSTU;

- Industry standards – OSTU;

- Standards of scientific and technical and engineerings associations and unions of Ukraine;

- Technical Terms of Ukraine;

- Sandarts. of enterprises.

3. The quality of some product (including technologacal processes, equipment, technologi­cal lines, products) is an aggregate of properties and descriptions of products which are aimed to satisfy certain needs of users in accordance with their setting.

Quality of products or some technical objects can be estimated by the quality indexes.

Nomenclature of indexes of quality of industrial products:

indexes of setting;

indexes of reliability;

indexes of technologicalness;

indexes of standardization;

ergonometric indexes;

aesthetic indexes;

patent-legal indexes;

ecological indexes;

indexes of safety;

indexes of economic efficiency - prime price, profitability, annual economic effect.

The indexes of quality of industrial products are expressed in units:

- natural (kg/h, t/t-f h, m/s, piece/year etc);

- relative – in % or in numeral or cost marks.

Different methods are used for the estimation of the quality indexes. They can be the following:instrumentation methods, registrational, calculation, by organs of sense.

4. Certification is an action which is conducted with the purpose of confirm of the prod­ucts accordance to the standards and to delivery of the proper document – certificate, I.e. certification is called to create the certain quality of products or services guarantees for user .

The certification of systems of management of quality (in accodance to the standards of ISO 9000) is not an obligatory requirement to the producers.

It is obligatory for suppliers in aerospace and military industries, and also in industries where the providing of safety and health of the people or the environment depends from the products quality.