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Высокие технологии Establish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance.
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Select workers whose skills match the rules.

Codify the new methods into rules.

Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them.

Gather detailed time and motion information.

Try different methods to see which is best.

To discover the most efficient method of performing specific tasks, Taylor studied in great detail and measured the ways different workers went about performing their tasks. One of the main tools he used was a time-and-motion study, which involves the careful timing and recording of the actions taken to perform a particular task. Once Taylor understood the existing method of performing a task, he tried different methods of dividing and coordinating the various tasks necessary to produce a finished product. Usually this meant simplifying jobs and having each worker perform fewer, more routine tasks, as at the pin factory or on Ford’s car assembly line. Taylor also sought ways to improve each worker’s ability to per form a particular task—for example, by reducing the number of motions workers made to complete the task, by changing the layout of the work area or the type of tool workers used, or by experimenting with tools of different sizes.

Teach to all workers the new method.

Once the best method of performing a particular task was determined, Taylor specified that it should be recorded so that the procedures could be taught to all workers performing the same task. These rules could be used to standardize and simplify jobs further—essentially, to make jobs even more routine. In this way, efficiency could be increased throughout an organization.

To increase specialization, Taylor believed workers had to understand the tasks that were required and be thoroughly trained in order to perform the tasks at the required level. Workers who could not be trained to this level were to be transferred to a job where they were able to reach the minimum required level of proficiency.

Workers should benefit from higher output

To encourage workers to perform at a high level of efficiency, and to provide them with an incentive to reveal the most efficient techniques for performing a task, Taylor advocated that workers should benefit from any gains in performance. They should be paid a bonus and receive some percentage of the performance gains achieved through the more efficient work process.

Taylor’s scientific method to establish work procedures resulted in reduced timeframes to perform jobs and introduced rules and procedures to industrial management. Taylor’s method became known as work study and it was embraced by several organizations. It was eventually also applied to office and administrative jobs and it became a precursor to systems analysis.

(i) Scientific Work Study

Work study refers to the systematic objective and critical examination of all factors influencing the efficiency of operations to improve thereon. It involves the measurement and improvement of work. This study includes Method study, Motion study. Time study and Fatigue study.

(a) Method Study: The purpose of this study is to maximise efficiency in the use of materials, machinery, manpower and capital by improving work methods. This study involves the critical examination of plant layout, product design, material handling and work processes, to minimise time, distance and cost involved in the transportation and storage of materials.

(b) Motion Study: This study refers to the study of the movements of an operator or a machine involved in a task with a view to elimi­nate superfluous or useless motions and to improve the others. This study is the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from using unnecessary illdirected and inefficient motions.

(c) Time Study: This study refers to the study of the time taken to perform each operation of a job in order to find out the proper time that should be taken in doing the job. It is the art of recording, analysing and synthesising the time elements of any operation.

(d) Fatigue Study: Fatigue study seeks to find out how long a person can perform the standard task without adverse effect on his health and efficiency