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Высокие технологии From behavioral scientists (later)
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From organized labor

Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas and suggestions.

Did not acknowledge variance among individuals.

Did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers.

Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.

Workers ended up distrusting the scientific management method.

Criticisms of scientific management

Ÿ too much pressure to perform placed on the workers

Ÿ unfair division of rewards between management and labor

Ÿ did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers

Ÿ specialized jobs became very boring, dull.

Ÿ managers frequently implemented only the increased output side of Taylor’s plan.(Workers did not share in the increased output).

Ÿ presents an oversimplified approach to worker motivation

Ÿ too authoritarian in approach

Ÿ demands excessive specialization of jobs and tasks

Ÿ did not acknowledge variance among individuals.

Ÿ tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas and suggestions - focused on the manufacturing environment.

Demise of Scientific Management

Ÿ In hands of business – Scientific Management = tool to exploit labor

Ÿ By 1915 – growing labor against “Taylorism”

Ÿ Union members/100 workers: 1880=1.8; 1900=7.5; 1914=10.5

Ÿ Congress investigates and US Commission on Industrial Relations issues Hoxie Report (1915) declaring Scientific Management as exploitive of labor.

Ÿ It will influence Management thought – but Scientific Management is dead – until rediscovered in Japan – the 1970/s wave of Quality Management

…………..

Scientific management has been criticised by workers, employees and psychologists. The limitations of the scientific management are nar­rated as under:

(i) Scientific management is production oriented. It concentrates too much on the technical aspects of work and undermines the human factor in industry. Trade unions are the critics of scien­tific management. They allege that it results in overspeeding of workers, monotony of job, less of initiative, rate cutting insecu­rity, industrial autocracy and technological unemployment.

(ii) Scientific management is based upon the assumption that workers are 'rational economic beings'. They are treated as mere extension of machines devoid of any feelings and emotions. It pays little attention to individual freedom and intangible motives like desire to be accepted by others and sense of achievement. Behavioural scientists have objected strongly to the assumptions of scientific management concerning human nature as these assumptions present a narrow view of work motivation.

(iii) Scientific management is applicable primarily to production operations at the operating level. Its applicability to serve functions is very limited. Scientific management is more a theory of industrial engineering than a general theovy of management. It is more appropriate to call Taylor as The Father of Industrial Management'.

(iv) Scientific management is more dogmatic than scientific. Human beings differ widely in their capacity and approach and cannot be put into a complete scientific jacket. There can be home best way for all. Dogmatic application of science without consider- ing appropriateness is undesirable.

(v) Managers criticised scientific management on the ground that it was difficult and expensive to introduce.

A systematic analysis of Taylor's contribution reveals that the entire philosophy of scientific management and its techniques and principles have considerable influence on modern management theory and practice. More so modern quantitative approach or management science approach is largely based on Taylor's philosophy of scientific