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Высокие технологии HIGH-TECH SYSTEMS
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LECTURE № 7,8

  1. Base criteria of high-tech
  2. Laser technologies
  3. Alternative energy
  4. Nanotechnologies

1. The basic criteria of high-tech are: science-capasity, systematic character, physical and mathematical design, computer technological environment, automation of all stages, stabil­ity, reliability, ecological cleanness. At proper technical and personnel providing these technolo­gies guarantee the receipt of goods with the new level of functional, aesthetic and ecological properties.

The high-tech technologies define the level of development of all the society and influ­ence on different spheres of human activity – industrial production, information technologies, economy, health protection, education.

Examples of high technologies: microelectronics, information technologies, laser technolo­gies, biotechnologies, space technologies, nanotechnologies, alternative energy.

2. Laser technologies are the aggregate of methods of machining, making, change of the state, properties and shape of material or half-finished product by means of laser radiation (in­tensive concentraited beam of light) got by lasers.

In laser technologies the thermal operating of laser beam on the processed materials is mainly used.

Laser technologies are an important part of modern industrial production and a symbol of high technologies.

Laser technologies allowe to localize and minimize admission of energy to machinned material and to get out an unattainable before results.

Basic features of application of laser technologies in different branches of industry are high quality of got goods, high productivity of the processes, economy of financial resources, ecological cleanness, increase of production culture.

Laser can be applied for the machining of a great number of materials (metals, ceramics, glasses, plastics, rubbers, semiconductor materials, jewels, biological materials) in many branches of industry – in microelectronics, in machine building, in constuction industry, in medicine, in agriculture, in jeweller industry etc.

Lasers are devices for the receipt of intensive, high-energy, oriented light beam.

Principle of action of laser is included in its name: laser - from Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation.

Lasers are various on the parameters of radiation, construction, fields of use, the sizes.

Depending on an active element, i.e. the basic element of laser which creates the radiation there are some types of lases: hard-body lases (active element is made of dielectric crystals, glasses, cemicoductors), gas lasers (active element of CO2), liquid lasers.

Each of groups has its characture features, strong and weak sides, its own descriptions.

The development of laser technique goes in the direction of increase of the power and ef­ficiency, diminishing of wave-length of got radiation and duration of impulses, possibilities of computer management, gear of light energy on large distances, diminishing of sizes of lasers, declines of their cost.

Some applications of laser technologies:

¨ Cutting out and cutting of metal and non-metal materials.

¨ Cleaning of materials surfaces.

¨ Welding.

¨ Size precision micromachining.

¨Marking and engraving of code informative signs.

¨ Carriers of data in a computer technique.

¨ Laser connection and location.

♦Agriculture.

♦ Medicine.

In a number of cases the wide application of laser technologies is limited by economic reasons: the cost of lasers is high enough.

3.All the systems of technologies of material sphere of production consume a greate num­ber of energy. Basis of functioning of all public production is a fuel and energy complex.

A fuel and energy complex (FEC) plays a major role in a world economy. Functioning of all the brounches of industry depends on it.

In the raw material sector of world economy fuel and energy resources (oil, natural gas, anthracite coal, atomic energy, water-power etc)play a leading role.This group of com­modities saves the role of leader among other goods groups in international trade, yielding only to the group of machines and equipment.

The structure of FEC in a world economy is determined by the the types of in-use energy and balance between them.

Features of fuel and energy balance of Ukraine: high specific gravity of natural gas and anthracite coal, atomic energy, insignificant use of such primary power resources as a water-power, oil and its products.

Requirements in energy of national economy including industry have a tendency to in­crease, while the supplies of natural resources are unboundless, exhausted, their use pollute the environment.

That is why there is a problem of search and technological mastering of new untraditional energy sources. Most of developed countries develop the technology of untraditional (renewable) energy sources – Sun, wind, waves, heat of the Earth, biomaterials.

Presently the stake of untraditional and renewable energy sources (URES) in the production of electric power is small ~ 2%. In the nearest 10 years the use of the alternative sources will be increased to 10…15 %.

Development of untraditional energy must become separate direction of public power policy of Ukraine.

4.The real example of the newest high science-capasity technologies are nanotechnolo­gies.

Nanotechnologies is the «forefront» of development of all the civilization, key concept of the XXI age, the symbol of the new scientific and technical revolution. The results of nanotech­nologies can transform all the world in a future.

Nanotechnologies are the technologies which allow to manipulate byseparate atoms and molecules for the creation of new materials and devices with unusual properties.

Nanotechnologies are based on achievements of many sciences – physics, chemistry, biol­ogy, mechanics, information technologies.

Their development and consequence of their use have a global character, they affect on all the spheres of human activity – industry informative environment, health protection, econ­omy, social sphere.

Nanotechnologies are the technologies of the general setting, they have interdisciplinary character.

Nano- is the decimal prefix which means one milliardth part of some size (10-9 ); from greek nanos – is «pygmy»).

In linear measurings nanoscale is the sizes between 1 and 100 nm (1 nm = 10-9 m).

Structures and devices of nanometer sizes exist from the time immemorial – in living and lifeless nature. A man only begins to open the properties of nanoworld which nature mastered a long ago.

Modern nanotechnology is related to efforts of scientists of many countries of the world.

First term «nanotechnology» was entered by Japanese physicist Н. Taniguchi.

The most essential openings which determen the development of the nanotechnologies are:

¨ creation of the new instruments of research of materials – scanning probe microscopes (1981, 1986, firm of IBM);

¨ opening of the new form of a carbon – fulleren (1985) and carbon nanotubes (1991).

Today on the world market we have the first commercial nanomaterials, the first elec­tronic devices, lab-on-chip, sensing elementsand other goods (more than 5 thousands goods) on the base of nanotechnologies for different applications in the most meaningful areas of human activity – in microelectronics, in machine building, in medicine, in military industry.

Many countries of the world actively joined to researches in the field of nanotechnology at the level of governments of the states. Laboratories and departments are created in leading universities of the world (in the USA, Japan, Germany, Russia, England, France, Italy, Switzer­land, China, Israel, Ukraine).

There are 8 Nobel Prizes in this area.

By the prognoses of the American association of National Science Foundation, in the near­est 10…15 years the world market of nanotechnologies will be exceeded by a 1 trillion of dollars, about 50 % IGO will be got by means of nanotechnologies. The basic sectors of market of products of nanotechnologies will be the followings (milliards of dollars): nanomaterials – 350, nanoelectronics – 300, medicine and pharmaceutics – 180, chemistry – 100, ecology – 100, transport – 70), fig.1.

Figure 1 – Basic sectors of market of products of nanotechnologies