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Высокие технологии MATERIAL SPHERE OF PRODUCTION
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FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS IN

LECTURE №5

  1. Production and technological processes. Classification of TP
  2. Types of productions
  3. Technival and economic indexes of technological process
  4. Technical preproduction
  5. Technologicalness of products construction and its economic indexes – Calc.task

1. The production process (PP) is the aggregate of the actions of people and tools As the result of it the initial materials and half-finished products turn into the prepared products accoding their setting.

The technological process (TP) is a part of the production process, direct-coupled with successive turning of the article of labour in the product of production.

The selection of technological process from a general production process has a condi­tional character.

Classification of TP has the followings criteria:

© Properties of raw material which change in the process of producrion: physical, me­chanical, chemical.

© Method of organization: discrete (periodic) processes, continuous, combined.

© Multipleness of treatment: cyclic processes (circle, reserved), broken (opened), com­bined.

© Motion of raw material and thermal streams: parallel, meeting, cross.

© Aggregate state of raw material: homogeneous, heterogeneous.

© On a thermal effect: exothermic, endothermic, mixed.

© On the terms of influence on raw materials: high temperature processes, catalytic proc­esses, biochemical processes, ultrasonic processes, laser processes.

2.Depending on a nomenclature, regularity, stability and total volume of output of prod­ucts a modern production is subdivided into different types – single, serial, mass. Most brightly typification of production is shown in a major industry of industry – machine-building.

A single production is characterized by the the wide nomenclature of produced goods, by the small volume of output; by the high qualification of workers; the labour productivity is below than in other types of production and a prime price is higher.

A serial production is characterized by the limited nomenclature of goods which are made by the periodically repeated parties. It has comparatively large volume of output. The qualification of workers is not high.

A mass production is characterized by a narrow nomenclature and large volume of output of goods continuously made or repaired during a long time. Qualification of workers is below than in single and serial production.The mass production has the most perfect structure and forms of production organization; it provides the most low prime price of making goods.

The serial production is the basic type of modern machine-building production.

3.When there is a few variants of technological processes one must toose an optimum process on the base of estimation of technical-economic indexes of TP: productivity, expense coefficients, quality of got production.

Productivity is the amount of products made for the time unit.

Expense coefficients are an expense of raw material, energy, fuel, additional materials on unit of the made products.

Prime price is a complete sum of all expenses on products making and realization.

Quality of the made products is an aggregate of its properties which are intended for sat­isfaction of user.

4. The technological systems in the material sphere of production consist of the fol­lowing stages (regardless of the goods type):

1. Scientific and technical preproduction:

2. Organizational preproduction

3. Production of goods

4. Determination of quality of products and their accordance to certain demands

5. Filling the trade sign, stroke-code and other denotations. Ser­tification

6. The goods supplying and their transmission to the internal or external market as a good of wide consumption or the good of the industrial setting

7. Determination of task of publicity company. Commercial realization of goods

The scientific and technical preproduction (STP) is basis of the activity of any enterprise.

STP is divided on the scientific-researt and the technical stages (preproductions).

The basic tasks of the technical preproduction (TP) are: forming of progressive technical and technological polisy for rhythmic and cost-effective, high-productional work of the enter­prise.

The technical preproduction consists of designer and technological preproductions.

All types of works on constructing of new goods are carried out on thestage of designer pr.On the basis of requirement specification (the initial document) a project and designer documents are developed.

The designer documents are graphic and text documents determining the composition and device of a good.

On the stage of technological pr. a technological analysis and control of designer docu­ments is carried out; the new technological processes are developed and the present processes are perfected; a choice, planning and making of technological equipment is carried out; the methods of quality control are chosen; organization of production in workshops is perfected.

The aims of technological pr. are the followings:

- increase of the mobility and readiness of enterprise to changing of production objects;

- increase of equipped and technical level of production;

- increase of the labour productivity.