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Высокие технологии The level of technologies influences the economic and political position of any state in the world.
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  1. A concept of technologies and their classification
  2. A role of technologies in a socio-economic development of a mankind
  3. The relative level of technologies
  4. Systems of technologies. A hierarchy of technologies in the system
  5. A life cycle of technologies and technological systems

1. Technology is the aggregate of methods of processing (treatment) of different mate­rial and non-material substances.

The modern interpretation of the «technology» concept must also include the special role of human factor; informative, communication, ecological aspects. The technology must be di­rected on a harmonization of relations production-man-environment.

Distinctive features (signs) of technology classification are presented in a table №1.

Table 1 – Distinctive (classification) signs of technologies

Distinctive signs Types of technologies
Belonging to industry of national economy Machine-building, metallurgy, chemical, in­formation, educational, financial, transport etc.
Processes of technologies Laser, plasma, impulsive, information, legal, educational etc.
Application domain Scientific, educational, production
Level of complication Simple, difficult
Dynamics of development Progressive, developing, steady (устояв­шиеся), out-of-date, high etc.
Requirement in resources Capital-intensive, power-consuming, science-demanding, resource-demanding
Setting Creative, destructive, double-duty
Place in the production process Food, processed, management technologies*
Competitive influence Base, key, new
Ecological estimation   Ecological clean, requiring facilities of defence of surrounding
Recurrence Discrete, continuous, closed-cycle (zero-emis­sion)
Priorities of creation Primary, convertion

2. The role of technologies increases today. Our age is named as «age of technologies».

The level of technologies of any enterprise make a greate influence on its economic indicators, economic stability of enterprise, on durability of its position at the market.

3. The basic criterions of estimation of relative level of technologies are:

science-demanding; products characreristics; ecology aspect; level of organizations of produc­tion on an enterprise.

If technologies belong to one industry an estimation of their level by the caracteristics of the production object is the most simple within the limits of one industry.

The relative level of technologies of the different brounches of industry can be estimated by the dynamics of their development and also on their cross-coupling.

4. Technologies existing in society in a certain moment, closely connected, rendering a cross-coupling form the system of technologies.

Not all the technologies have an equal influence on the system in general, I.e. a hierarchy of technologies exists in the system: there are fundamental technologies, general technologies, applied technologies.

Fundamental technologies have the most influence on the system in a whole due to their high position in a hierarchy.

5.The technologies have the cycle of their life: they are born, develop and die. Graphically it can be represents in co-ordinates: characteristics of technology - capital investments, - S-shape curve, fig. 1 (1986, R.Foster). The curve reflects dependence between the investments of resources in technology and the «return».

Figure 1 – Cheme of t. development (cycle of life)

In the total the scientific and technical progress is the changing of the technological systems, fig.2.

Figure 2 - Changing of technologies and continuity of progress of technologies