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Высокие технологии Transfer of technologies
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Cost of technologies

Market of technologies and its participants



Tekhnoparks as one of the forms of organization of innovative activity

Classification of innovations. Innovative process

Concept of innovations




1.Innovation is the result of activity which provides quality growth of the efficiency of the production process or products claimed by a market. It is the end-point of intellectual activ­ity of man, his fantasy, creative process, openings, inventions and rationaliza­tions.

In accordance with international documents (standards) innovation is determined as the end-point of innovative activity, resulted in a new or improved product, which is used at the market, new or improved technological process, in-use in practical activity, in the new forms of organization structure or in the new social services .

2. The classification signs of innovations:

- orientation (technological, goods, organizational);

- importance(base, improvement);

- sphere of use (local, regional, state, international).

The kernel of innovations is the technological innovation which today is a new form of integration of t. in the production process of the enterprise and occupies all spheres of its activity.

An innovative process (IP) is a process of transformation of scientific knowledges in an innovation. It is the chain of the stages when the inn. rises from an idea to the concrete prod­ucts, technologies or services and spread at the practical use.

The beginning stages of this process are fundamental or applied scientific researches or sometimes the analysis of patents, inventions, publications. The finishing stages of innovative process in the conditions of market are marketing and sale of production.

3. T. is the aggrigate of science and production (not only territorial but virtual).

The basic idea of t.p. is commercialization of the results of scientific researches of uni­versities, academy and other research centers the scientific products of which can be taken to the production structures by innovative procedures with the exit to the market .

Technologies are the real good today. The world market of t. exists along with the world market of other goods and capital.

The basic differences of technology as a good from the ordinary goods:

non-material character;

technology hasn”t the physical wear, one technology can be used unlimited;

the t. is the intermediate product;

the users of technologies are firms-producers;

technology is not the good of mass demand;

the competition of technologies is very specific;

the cost of technology depends on a buyer.

Participants of t. market:

1). A leading role at the market of technologies of the developed countries is played by the large industrial firms.

2). Small firms.

3). Engineerings firms.

4). So-called unprofitable research institutions.

5). Higher educational institutions.

6). Brokers and intermediary firms.

7). The state – as a participant of market of technologies and as his arbiter.

8). Individual inventors.

The cost of technology involves the following things:

· Cost of scientific labour (openings);

· Cost of engineering labour (inventions and technologies);

· Cost of labour of skilled workers;

· Cost of administrative labour (new forms of organization of production).

The basic methods of determination of t. cost are:

‚ The rule of 25%. The source of price of t. is superprofit.

Market approach. A buyer makes deduction (royalty) from the sale price of goods produced by a licensed t. on the beforehand adopted rates.

Expense approach. A salesman do the certain research works in correspondence with buyer demand. The cost of these works is considered as the cost of technology.

The common buisness approach. The described method can be named as the gener­alized expense approach, because besides the cost of technology (the costs of its development, more precisely) ineffectual researches are taken into account.

There are three basic forms of t. sale:

1) direct technology sale;

2) sale throughba daughter's firm;

3) sale through a joint venture.

1-st ch. is the most widespread and popular.

3.Every distribution of new technique and technology is a t. trasfer.

The transfer of technologies is a motion of technologies with the use of some informative channals from one its collective transmitter to other. Transfer of technologies is the important method of realization of innovative process, instrument of commercialization of technologies.

Forms of transmission of technologies:

- commercial (retribution): license agreements, non-license forms of transfer technology and co-operation agreements;

- noncommercial (gratuitous): publications, lectures on coferences,, displays on exhibi­tions, internships.

Transfer is a complex structure and consists of three components:

- financial elements (materials, machines);

- informative elements (knowledge of processes, individual and collective experience);

- organizational elements (organization of production, workplaces, rhythm, synchroniza­tion or co-ordination of tasks or functions).

The most widespread organizational forms of t.t. abroad are:

- international licenses;

- international franchise (purchase of the prepared business, right on the own business on a sale products which is made by other firms);

- joint enterpprises;

- technological alliances (inter-firmes co-operation the main feature of which is organiza­tion of enterprise round the management of t.).