Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Высокие технологии INTRODUCTION
просмотров - 479


Aims & objectives:

· To introduce the aims of the course, the place of the course in the curriculum, and key concepts of ELT;

· Students should be able to identify definitions and make a list of ELT topics they will study in this course.

Key terms:

Discipline, course, approach, method, technique, ELT

Brief summary:

· Introduction to the course objectives and ELT-related topics and questions

This course should involve following topics (with students’ contribution) to prepare candidates for teaching English:

Different methods of teaching

Theoretical and practical considerations of TEFL

Some useful teaching tips

Planning (a lesson, an ELT course, ..)

Techniques to deal with disruptive student behaviour

Motivational aspects of ELT

Use of ELT materials

Use of technology in ELT

Evaluation and selection of ELT materials

Characteristics of good language teachers/learners

How to teach learning

How to teach four skills; reading, writing, listening, speaking

How to teach supplementary skills; grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation

Assessment techniques

Developing teaching skills

Strategies of professional development

· Description of basic ELT terms:

Curriculum, Syllabus,

Course, Textbook, Materials, Audiovisual,

Four Skills of Language Learning

Approach, method, technique

Behavioristic Approaches to Learning

The Audiolingual Method

ELT: English Language Teaching

ESP: English for Specific Purposes

ESL: English as a Second Language , EFL: English as a Foreign Language

TEFL: Teaching English as a Foreign Language

TESOL: Teaching English to the Speakers of Other Languages

CALL: Computer Assisted Language Learning

ICT: Information Communication Technologies

TPR: Total Physical Response

L1 – L2: First Language-Second Language


· What are the objectives of a contemporary TEFL methodology course?

· What are your personal interests in TEFL? Why did you choose to be a foreign language teacher? What kind of teacher would you like to be?

· How is ‘a technique, a method and an approach’ described in language teaching? Give examples for each of them.

Conclusion:The stages of development in FLT methodology have been summarized by the SU scholars mainly as follows:

· Towards the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century “grammar-translation” and “text-based translation” methods (P. Glieder, G. Langenscheicht) based on comparative-contrastive linguistics and associationist psychology

· Reform movement

· Natural Method (F. Gouin, M. Berlitz, M. Voltaire)

· Direct Method (H. Sweet, V. Vietor)

· Oral Method (H. Palmer)

· ALM (G. Frees, R. Lado, H. Brooks)

· Audio-visual Method (R. Guberina, P. Rivan, R. Michael)

· M. West’s method

· Mixed method (P. Humboldt, F. Klose, etc)

· Cognitive comparative method (И.А. Грузинская, З.М. Цветкова А. А. Миролюбов, В.С. Цетлин, etc.)

· Active Methods of FLT (Э.П. Шубин, И.Н. Горелов, etc.)

· Communicative Method (Е. И. Пассаов, etc.)

· Communicative speech act (И.Л. Бим , etc.)

However, a more global approach that includes the contemporary methods of foreign language teaching (ELT/TESOL) in Europe and North America will be covered in this course.

Recommended reading:

Richards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S. 1982. “Method: Approach, design and procedure.” TESOL Quarterly 16: 153-68

Richards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S. 2001 (2nd edition) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1-19

Supplementary materials:

(Handouts _+_ Visuals___ PPT presentations___ Videos____ )



Aims & objectives:

· To introduce classical methods of foreign language teaching; grammar-translation method

· Students should be able to summarize the features of the grammar-translation method

· Students should be able to tell the class why GT would not be a good choice of FLT nowadays.

Key terms:

Inductive vs deductive approaches to teaching grammar

Brief summary:

· The Grammar-Translation Method (19th Century)

The grammar translation method was the prominent teaching method in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: With “a focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary … translations of texts and doing written exercise,” (Brown, 2000:15) it provided a means for scholarly instruction and reading proficiency, but scant time for oral practice. Students learned ‘about’ the language but not how ‘use’ it. Prator and Celce-Murcia (1979) in Brown, (2000: 15) outline the main features of the method:

- Teacher uses FL a large majority of the time giving minimal reference to target language.

- Vocabulary is taught in lists and out of context.

- Complexities of grammar are explicated in long detail.

- Form and inflection are the focal point of grammar instruction and correct sentences are created by

following grammatical rules.

- High level of reading material is introduced early.

- Text reading is used for grammatical analysis and content is considered secondary.

- Drills consist of translating sentences taken out of context.

- Little if any pronunciation practice.


· In which method of foreign language teaching does the teacher ask students in their first language (ie Russian) if they have any questions, and if a student asks a question, the teacher answers it in Russian? (For example, students learn that English ‘-ion’ corresponds to '-ция’ in Russian)

· In which method of foreign language teaching is the ability to communicate in the target language not a goal of language instruction?

· What are the goals for learning a foreign language according to the Grammar Translation Method?

· How is the Grammar Translation Method criticized? Write your answer in no more than three statements.


Despite its persistent worldwide popularity, Richards and Rodgers (1986) in Brown (2000: 16) point out “it has no advocates…there is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it…” Of all the methods used in the classroom, this one bears the least resemblance to learning a foreign language.

Recommended reading:

Brown, H. D. (2000) Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. White Plains: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4th ed. p.15

Prator, C.H. and Celce-Murcia, M. (1979) An Outline of Language Teaching Approaches.

In Celce-Murcia, M. and McIntosh, L. (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. New York: Newbury House.

Supplementary materials:

(Handouts ___ Visuals___ PPT presentations_+_ Videos____ )

Читайте также

  • - Manning A., Dawkins M. S. An Introduction to Animal Behaviour//Press Syndicate, Univ. of Cambridge. 1998.

    Lorenz K.. Evolution and Modification of Behavior. L., 1966 Mackintosh, N. J. Approaches to the study of animal intelligence//British J. Psycho]. 1988. V. 79. P. 509-525. Mackintosh N. J. Abstraction and discrimination//In The Evolution of Cognition/ Heyes C., Huber L. (eds), The Vienna Series in Theor. Biol. A Bradford Book, The MIT Press. 2000. P. 123-143. MaierN.R. T. Reasoning in white rats//Comp. Psychol. Monographs. V. 6.1929. P. 1—93.Marino L., Reiss D., Galiup G. G. Mirror... [читать подробенее]

  • - Manning A., DawkinsM. S. An Introduction to Animal Behaviour//Press Syndicate, Univ. of Cambridge. 1998.

    Lorenz K. Evolution and Modification of Behavior. L., 1966 Immelman K. Introduction to Ethology//N.-Y.-London: Plenum Press. 1980. Jarrard L. E. On the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory in the rat// Behav. neural bid. 1993. V. 60. P. 9~26. Jerison H. J. Animal intelligence and encephalization//Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. L. 1985. V. 308. P. 21-35. Jones Т., Kamil A. C. Tool-making and tool-using in the Northern blue jay//Science 1973. V. 180. No. 4090. P. 1076-1078. ... [читать подробенее]

  • - Introduction

    Second half of left century was characterised by rapid development of technics, national economy industrialisation, an intensification of manufacture of foodstuff for provision with a food of continuously increasing population of a planet. In 2000 the globe population made 7 billion against 5 billion in 1986. Such demographic situation negatively influences on ecology. In connection with growth of cities and industry development there were serious environmental problems: pollution of... [читать подробенее]

  • - Introduction

    Content Відкрийте Збірник вправ і виконайте Вправу 13 Таким чином, XIX ст. стало періодом справжнього національного відродження: зросла національна свідомість українців, значних успіхів досягла українська культура. Національно-визвольний рух, як у Наддніпрянській, так і... [читать подробенее]

  • - Introduction

    Content Глоссарий Жеткізуші – м&... [читать подробенее]

  • - Session 153: Initiative and Response: Vietnamese Actors in the Introduction of European Medical and Technical Systems to Vietnam

    Organizer and Chair: Michele Thompson, Southern Connecticut State University Discussant: Lewis Pyenson, University of Southwestern Louisiana Recently Asia has played an important part in widening the fields of medical and scientific history beyond the thematic and theoretical factors which located these disciplines firmly in Europe and North America. It can also be said that familiarity with history of science and medicine has provided new avenues of investigation for scholars whose geographic... [читать подробенее]

  • - Introduction

    Towing Antifreeze Brake fluid Power steering fluid Leaking antifreeze often leaves a crystalline deposit like this. When all else fails, you may find yourself having to get a tow home - or of course you may be helping somebody else. Long-distance recovery should only be done by a garage or breakdown service. For shorter distances, DIY towing using another car is easy enough, but observe the following points: • Use a proper tow-rope - they are not expensive. The... [читать подробенее]


    БАЗОВА ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета ПЛАН Мета Освітня (навчальна): поглиблення знань студентів і слухачів магістратури з питань міжнародних стандартів прав людини та вивчення цих стандартів, викладених у відповідних... [читать подробенее]

  • - Introduction

    Plan of the lecture Введение Введение План лекции Изучить самостоятельно: 1. Высота точки, расположенной на поверхности Земли. 2. Виды высот полета 3. Уровни отсчета высот. 4. Порядок перевода давления с уровня QNH на QFE. 5. Погрешности барометрических... [читать подробенее]

  • - Introduction

    Adjective categories English and Russian adjectives: the main typological characteristics and the category of the degree of quality 4 classes of Rus adj: 1. expressing quality – qualitative (большой, тонкий) 2. expressing quality through its relation to other things and actions, denoting a property of an object through the relation to other object or predicate (e.g.Москва-московский, каменный-стена, весенний день –... [читать подробенее]