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TALKING VIA SPACE

Text C

Communication has come a long way from the time when an Indian beat a drum in the forest to the time when a scientist receives messages from a satellite. In this space age communication has become a highly developed field. The system of communication in large countries is unthinkable today without space satellites. Besides large distances, there is a great time difference: the territories of some countries comprise up to 11 zones. Satellites help to minimize all the difficulties that may appear. They rapidly transmit TV and radio programs to different towns, cities, and distant areas.

Space systems and electronic technology have made it possible to set up an automatic system of communication designed for rapid transmission of all kinds of information.

People write letters and send telegrams. But at the same time people living in various cities like to exchange news on the telephone. Statistics reports that the number of long-distance telephone calls is about 2,000 million per year. A person in Moscow talking on the phone with Vladivostok must know that this conversation is carried on through a satellite.

Trains and cars can use mobile radio telephones to make calls. Businessmen can use teletypewriters to send messages via telephone lines to other teletypewriters in another city which automatically print them as they are received. Even photographs can be sent over telephone wires.

Practically all the population in large countries can watch TV programs via satellites. The orbital communication systems make it possible for people from different continents to see and hear one another.

The importance of space means of communication is increasing every year. The communication satellites of the international organization “INTERSAT” enable people to keep reliable telephone, telegraph and telex communication in any weather with ships practically in every part of the World Ocean.

Времена группы Perfect

Группа совершённых времён (Perfect Tenses) обозначает, что действие закончилось, завершилось к определённому моменту в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем: I have seen this film (Я (уже) посмотрел данный фильм). He had finished his work by 10 o’clock in the morning (Он завершил работу к 10 часам утра). Ann will have written her article by 3 o’clock. (Анна напишет статью к 3 часам).

В центре внимания – результат действия, а не время его выполнения.

Сказуемое во временах группы Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в настоящем (have, has), прошедшем (had) или будущем (shall have, will have) неопределённом времени и III формы смыслового глагола.

Запомните порядок слов в различных типах предложений во временах группы Perfect, приведённых в таблице. Здесь, как и во временах группы Continuous, при постановке вопроса на первое место ставится первый вспомогательный глагол.

Спряжение глаголов группы Perfect

Форма Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
Утверди-тельная I have (I’ve) written He has (He’s) the letter I had (I’d) written the letter by 2 o’clock I shall (I”ll) have He will (He’ll) written the letter by 2 o’clock
Вопроси-тельная Have I written the Has he letter? Had I written the letter by 2 o’clock Shall I have Will he written the letter by 2 o’clock?
Отрица-тельная I have written the He has letter I’ve not written the He’s letter I had not written the letter by 2 o’clock. I’d not written… I shall not have He will written the letter by 2 o’clock I’ll not have He’ll written…

Распознавательные элементы группы Perfect:

1. Present Perfect.

Действие совершилось к настоящему моменту. Результат этого действия налицо. Это время широко употребляется в разговорной речи со следующими словами: ever, already, just, lately, yet, since.

2. Past Perfect.

Действие совершилось к определённому моменту в прошлом. Этот момент передаётся обстоятельствами времени: by that time, by 2 o’clock, by the end of the year (month).

Past Perfect употребляется также в тех случаях, когда мы хотим подчеркнуть предшествование одного действия другому: He said that he had left his key at home.

3. Future Perfect.

Действие совершится к или до определённого момента в будущем. Момент может быть указан: by Sunday, by 3 o’clock, by that time. Future Perfect употребляется редко, чаще оно заменяется формой Future Indefinite.

I. Use the verbs to make a form of the present perfect simple.

Model: The ship(not sink)….but it‘s in a dangerous condition.

The ship hasn‘t sunk but it‘s in a dangerous condition.

1. (your sister write) … … to you yet?

2. I (have) … … a headache ever since lunchtime.

3. Nadia (never see) … … any Chinese films.

4. Someone (steal) … … Mr Grant’s.

5. The passengers are tired because they (not sleep) … … all night.

6. I’m afraid we (just break) … … your window. Sorry!

7. David (not, win) … … a prize this time, I’m afraid.

8. (you ever eat) … … Spanish food? It’s great.

II. Put a time word or phrase from the list into each space.

 
 
yet for since often ever never already so far just always

Model: Carlos has lived in the city centre since 1996.

1. Thanks for the present! I’ve ……….wanted a pet goldfish!

2. Have you ………..drunk pineapple juice? It’s fantastic!

3. I’ve…………………heard some fantastic news! I’ve passed my exams!

4. Hurry up! Haven’t you finished …………….? You are a slow-coach!

5. Nina has worked in this company ……………five years.

6. I’ve ………….been on a big ship before. It’s an interesting experience!

7. We’re very busy today. ………….we’ve sold over a hundred bikes.

8. I’ve…………..passed this building, but this is the first time I’ve been inside.

9. Can I have a different book? I’ve ……………read this one.

III. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

Model: We started working here three years ago.

We have worked here for ………three years.

a) This is the first time I’ve been on a plane.

I …………………………………….. before.

b) That’s strange! My pen isn’t here!

That’s strange! …………………………………. disappeared!

c) Nicky and Jan aren’t at this school any more.

Nicky and Jan ………………………………….. this school.

d) I saw a friend of yours a few moments ago.

I ………………………………. a friend of yours.

e) I’m still writing my letters.

I ……………………………….. my letters yet.

f) Is this your first visit to South America?

Have …………………………… before?

g) Oh bother! My wallet is still in the car.

Oh bother! I ……………………………….. my wallet in the car.

h) It’s a long time since we spoke to your sister.

We ……………………………………. to your sister for a long time.

i) Is Anna still asleep?

Has …………………………………… up yet?

IV. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

Model: While I had waited/was waiting/waited at the bus-stop, I had noticed/was noticing/noticed a new shop which wasn’t/had not been in the street the day before.

1. I had gone/went out into to the garden to fetch my bike, but found/was finding that someone stole/had stolen it.

2. When George met/was meeting Diane for the first time, he knew/wasknowing that he met/had met/was meeting her somewhere before.

3. Helen got off/was getting off the bus, and walked/was walking into the bank when she realized/had realized/was realizing that she left/had left/was leaving her handbag on the bus.

V. Put each verb given into past simple, past continuous or past perfect. More than one answer may be possible. The first answer (a) is given for you.

The police suspected that Brian (a) had broken (break) the window at his house because he (b) ……………… (want) to make them think that a burglar (c) ……………… (steal) his valuable stamp collection. They (d) ……………… (think) that Brian (e) ……………… (do) this because he (f) ……………… (need) the money. However, they (g) ……………… (not know) that Brian (h) ……………… (fly) to Brazil the week before, and (i) ………………( be) abroad when the burglary (j) ……………… (take place).

VI. Complete each part sentence “a” to“ g” with one of the part sentences 1 to 8. More than one answer may be possible.

Model: As soon as I hear from Helen, 6.

a) By the time Mary arrives …..

b) Please take a seat …..

c) This time next week …..

d) Next time you see me …..

e) We’ll have time to have some lunch …..

f) In a few moments …...

g) There won’t be any more lessons …..

1) until the dentist is ready.

2) the match will be over.

3) I’ll have had my haircut and you won’t recognize me.

4) It will have stopped raining.

5) Before the train leaves.

6) I’ll ask her to phone you.

7) Until the teachers’ strike is over.

8) We’ll be enjoying ourselves on holiday.

Времена группы Perfect Continuous

Глаголы этой группы выражают действия, которые: а) начались раньше указанного момента в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем и продолжают совершаться после этого момента; б) совершались некоторый отрезок времени до определœенного момента.

Времена группы Perfect Continuous (совершённые длительные) образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени (Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect) и четвертой формы смыслового глагола.

Спряжение глаголов группы Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous
Утвердительная форма
I have beenwriting He has the letter for an hour.     Я пишу письмо (уже) час. (Он пишет …) I had beenwritingthe letter for an hour when he came.     Я писал письмо (уже) час, когда он пришел. I shall have been He willwriting the letter for an hour when he comes. Я буду писать письмо (уже) час, когда он придет. (Он будет писать …)
Вопросительная форма
Have Ibeenwriting Has he the letter for an hour?   Had I beenwritingthe letter for an hour when he came?   Shall Ihave been Will hewriting the letter for an hour when he comes?
Отрицательная форма
I have not been He has writing the letter for an hour.   (I haven’t …, He hasn’t …) I had not beenwritingthe letter for an hour when he came.     (I hadn’t …) I shall not have been He willwriting the letter for an hour when he comes. (I shan’t …, He won’t …)

Распознавательные элементы группы Perfect continuous:

1. Present Perfect Continuous.

Выражает длительное действие, ĸᴏᴛᴏᴩᴏᴇ началось в прошлом и еще совершается в настоящее время.

Всегда указан период времени: for an hour (в течение часа), for a long time (долгое время), since five o’clock ( с пяти часов) и т.д., кроме того, выражает длительное действие, ĸᴏᴛᴏᴩᴏᴇ началось в прошлом и закончилось перед моментом речи.

2. Past Perfect Continuous.

Выражает длительное прошедшее действие, ĸᴏᴛᴏᴩᴏᴇ началось ранее другого прошедшего действия и всœе еще происходит в момент его наступления или закончилось непосредственно перед моментом наступления другого прошедшего действия.

Период действия может быть указан: for two hours (в течение двух часов), for three months (в течение трех месяцев), for a long time (долго, давно) и т.д. В том случае, когда действие закончилось, период может быть и не указан.

3. Future Perfect Continuous.

Выражает длительное будущее действие, ĸᴏᴛᴏᴩᴏᴇ начинается ранее другого будущего действия и будет еще совершаться в момент его наступления. Это время употребляется очень редко.

I. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

Model: I live here/I have lived here since the end of last year.

1. Someone has just stolen/has just been stealing my bicycle.

2. I’m afraid the last train left/has left an hour ago.

3. Yesterday I lost/have lost my wallet.

4. Thank you for your offer, but I’ve decided/I decided not to accept it.

5. Take your umbrella with you. It’s started/It started raining.

6. We’re enjoying our trip. We have visited/visited two countries so far.

7. I’m standing here/I’ve been standing here for hours and I feel tired.

8. This has been/was a busy day and it isn’t over yet!

9. I feel really tired. We went/have been to a party last night.

II. Complete each mini-dialogue, using the verbs given, in either present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.

Model: A: “Terminator 2” is on at the “Rex”?

(you see) Have you seen it?

B: No, not yet. Shall we go? I (look forward) am looking forward to seeing it.

1) A: What’s the matter? You look really tired!

B: I am! I (study) _____ all day, and I (not finish) _____ yet.

A: Oh well, time for a break.

2) A: I (phone) _____ Carol all day, but there’s no reply.

B: I expect she (go) _____ swimming with her friends.

3) A: (you hear) _____ the news?

B: What news?

A: Someone (rob) _____ the bank at the end of the road.

4) A: Why is your leg in plaster?

B: That’s a silly question! I (break) _____ it, of course.

A: Someone (write) _____ “Time for a break” on the plaster!

III. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

Model: I came to live here three months ago.

I have been living here for three months.

1. Mary is out at the shops at the moment.

Mary _____ to the shops.

2. I have had French lessons since March.

I _____ French since March.

3. I’m still reading this book.

I _____ reading this book yet.

4. Paul left the room a moment ago.

Paul has _____ the room.

5. Ten of the letters are ready.

I _____ ten letters so far.

6. It’s ages since I last went to the cinema.

I _____ to the cinema for ages.

7. This is the first time I’ve eaten snails.

I _____ snails before.

8. I don’t remember Helen’s phone number.

I have _____ Helen’s phone number.

9. David has a different opinion now.

David _____ his mind.

IV. Answer the questions according to the model:

Have you been staying here long? (for a month)

I have been staying here for a month.

1. Has he been talking about his plan long? (all these days) 2. Have children been swimming long? (for half an hour) 3. Have they been working in the garden long? (since 10o‘clock) 4. Have you been watching TV long? (for two hours) 5. Has he been sitting here long? (for a long time) 6. Have you been looking for the book long? (the whole day) 7. Had it been raining long? (for a week) 8. Has it been snowing long? (since yesterday) 9. Have you been translating the article long? (for three hours) 10. Have you been working long? (since early morning)

V. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.

Model: I was very tired when I arrived home.

(I/work/hard all day) I had been working hard all day.

1) The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired.

(they/play/football) __________________________ .

2) There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes.

(somebody/smoke/in the room) _____________________ .

3) Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn’t know where she was.

(she/dream) ______________________ .

4) When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off.

(he/watch/TV) _________________ .

VI. Read the situation and complete the sentences.

Model: We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain.

We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain.

1. I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly realized that I was in the wrong restaurant.

I _____________ for 20 minutes when I ______________.

2. Sarah got a job in a factory. Five years later the factory closed down.

At the time factory ____________, Sarah ________________ there for five years.

3. I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in the audience suddenly began shouting.

The orchestra __________ when _____________.

4. This time make your own sentence: I began walking along the road.

I ________________ when _______________.

VII. Put the verb into the most suitable form, past continuous (I was doing),

past perfect (I had done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

Model: It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours were having (have) a party.

Model: We were good friends. We had known (know) each other for a long time.

1. John and I went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he ___________ (walk) so fast.

2. Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She ________ (run).

3. When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They __________ (eat).

4. When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty but their stomachs were full. They ________ (eat).

5. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He ______ (look) for his contact lens.

6. When I arrived, Kate _______ (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I was late and she ___________ (wait) for a very long time.

7. I was sad when I sold my car. I _________ (have) it for a very long time.

8. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We ________ (travel) for more than 24 hours.

Глагол to do

(to do – did – done)

Синтаксическая функция и значение Пример и перевод
1 2
1. Смысловой глагол: «делать», «проводить», «выполнять», «совершать». An electric motor does mechanical work. Электрический мотор совершает работу.
2. Вспомогательный глагол: а) для образования вопросительной и отрицательной форм в Present, Past Indefinite;   б) для образования отрицательной формы повелительного наклонения;   в) для усиления значения глагола – сказуемого. - Do you know how to use this device? - Yes, I do. – Вы знаете, как пользоваться этим прибором? – Да. - Did you see this film yesterday? - No, I didn’t. – Ты видел данный фильм вчера? – Нет. Don’t use this tool, it is broken. Не пользуйся этим резцом, он сломан. Only then did he understand his mistake. Только тогда он понял свою ошибку. We do realize what great importance this discovery has for the future work. Мы действительно понимаем, какое огромное значение имеет это открытие для нашей будущей работы.
2
3. Глагол – заместитель (во избежание повторения смыслового глагола). The last experiments gave us much better results than did the previous ones. Последние эксперименты дали нам гораздо лучшие результаты, чем предыдущие.


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