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Agricultural buildings, commercial buildings, residential buildings, educational buildings, government buildings, industrial buildings, military buildings, parking and storage, religious buildings, transit stations, other.

List of Building Types

4. Переведите предложения [...]0 письменно.

5. Ответьте на вопросы.

■ What does each building type depend on?

■ What is land use?

■ May zoning for residential use permit business and industry?

■ What kinds of buildings may residential buildings include?

■ What is the cause of increasing settlement density?

■ What building should be regarded as residential one?

■ What types of commercial buildings exist?

■ How can a commercial building combine functions?

■ What are industrial buildings used for?

6. Дайте определœение базовых типов зданий.

7. Кратко перескажите текст.

Construction Projects Part One

In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity. large-scale construction is a feat of multi­tasking. Normally, the job is managed by the project manager and supervised by the construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.

For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is es­sential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastruc­ture must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, site safety, availability of materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public, preparing tender documents, etc.

In general, there are three types of construction projects:

■Building construction

■Heavy/civil construction

■Industrial construction.

Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct, and maintain the project and includes common elements — design, financial, and legal considerations.

(900 п.зн.)

Part Two

Industrial construction, though a relatively small part of the entire construction industry, is a very important component. Owners of these projects are usually large, for-profit, industrial corporations. These corporations can be found in such industries as medicine, petro­leum, chemical, power generation, manufacturing, etc. Processes in

these industries require highly specialized expertise in all phases of the project implementation. As in building and heavy/highway con­struction, this type of construction requires a team of individuals to ensure a successful project.

The increasing complexity of construction projects creates the need for design professionals trained in all stages of the project's life- cycle and develops an appreciation of the building as an advanced technological system requiring close integration of many sub-systems and their individual components, including sustainability. Building engineering is an emerging discipline that attempts to meet this new challenge.

A construction project must fit into the legal framework. These in­clude governmental regulations on the use of property, and obligations that are created in the process of construction. The project must ad­here to zoning and building code requirements.

A construction project is a complex net of contracts, each of which must be carefully considered. To sum up. the contracts must be de­signed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obliga­tions set out. Contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly, whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse. (1 440 п. зн. )

Письменно подготовьте аннотацию текста 'Construction Projects'.