Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Спорт Система органов ООН (главные и вспомогательные органы). Генеральная Ассамблея ООН, Совет Безопасности.
просмотров - 402

2 types of organs within the UN

- principal (powers, functions, composition determined by the Charter):

GA, SC, ECOSOC, Trusteeship Council, ICJ, Secretariat

- subsidiary (created by principal organs that determine powers, functions and composition):

set up by GA – International Law Commission, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNICEF United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the UN Administrative Tribunal (UNAT).

set up by SC – peace-keeping missions, Sanctions Committees, the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, UNCC (the United Nations Compensation Commission)

The principal organ will confer some of its powers on a subsidiary organ that it creates. However, a principal organ may be entitled to confer on the subsidiary organ powers which it does not itself possess where the power to establish such a sub­sidiary organ is necessary.

Specialized agencies:

- international organizations in their own right (unlike subsidiary organs)

- established by separate treaties; bound with the UN by agreements

- the UN may though coordinate their activities (mainly, through ECOSOC)

The General Assembly:

- plenary organ (not legislative) body

- the only principal organ composed of all member States

- meets annually in regular session (between September and December)

- competence to discuss and make recommendations

- one member one vote(important decisions must be adopted by two thirds of members present and voting, other – simple majority)

- binding decisions only on internal administrative matters

- may not intervene in domestic affairs

- agenda items allocated to one of six main committees, where decision-taking occurs

- (Disarmament and International Security, Economic and Financial, Social, Humanitarian and Cultural, Special Political and Decolonization, Administrative and Budgetary Legal)

- procedural commit­tees

(not composed of all UN members):

o General Committee (organizing the work of session, deciding on the agenda)

o Credentials Committee (examines the credentials of repre­sentatives of member States)

- standing committees

(composed of experts rather than representatives of member States,

assist the Fifth Committee with financial matters):

o Advisory Committee (administrative and budgetary questions)

o Committee on Contributions

The Security Council:

- composed of 15 member States

- 5 perman­ent members (USA, Russia, UK, France, China)

- 10 members elected by GA for 2-year terms

- competence – international peace and security (bears primary responsibility)

- one member one vote

- non-procedural matters adopted by 9 votes (with concurring(совпадающий) vote of permanent members)

- permanent members possess a veto (abstentions are not vetos)

- power to adopt decisions binding on UN members