Социология COMPREHENSION EXERCISES просмотров - 61
I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary.
II. Find In the text the English equivalents of the following:
человеческое общество, иметь общее наследие, ценности, передавать из поколения в поколение, если бы не, пройти долгий путь развития, значительные успехи в культуре, несмотря на различия, удовлетворить основные человеческие потребности в, составить список, вызвать дождь, предложить идею (мысль), иметь место (происходить), четко разграничивать, убеждение, оказывать сопротивление чему-либо, рассматриваться, угрожать, испытывать желание, изменить способ видения мира, распространяться, принимать идею (мысль).
III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below.
1) People in a society are ... of people outside the area. 2) Culture is the ... of learned, socially transmitted behavior. 3) We preserve our ... culture through different means of expression. 4) The study of culture is an important part of ... social work. 5) Through advances in culture human beings have come a long way from our ... . 6) Human cultures change and ... each year. 7) Diffusion can occur .... 8) Sociologists ... a useful distinction between elements of material and nonmaterial culture. 9) Material culture refers to the ... or ... aspects of our daily life. 10)..., the nonmaterial culture is more resistant to ... than the material culture is. 11) Therefore, foreign ideas are viewed as more ... to a culture than foreign products are. 12) We are more willing to use technological innovations that ... than ideologies that ....
make our lives easier, change our way of seeing the world, threatening, generally, change, physical, technological, make, through a variety of means, expand, prehistoric heritage, contemporary, distinctive, totality, relatively independent.
IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:
to consist of, independent of, outside, to share smth, if it were not for, to come a long way from, to involve doing smth, by contrast, to refer to, to be spread, to occur, to make a distinction between, to bring about smth, to be resistant to, to be viewed as, to be willing to do smth.
I. Reread the text and answer the following questions.
1) How do members of a society learn, transmit and preserve their distinctive culture? 2) Why do you think the study of culture is an important part of contemporary sociological work? 3) What cultural universals do anthropologists consider to be the most common for all human societies? 4) What do cultural universals have in common and what differs them? 5) How do human cultures change and expand? 6) Why do you think sociologists make a useful distinction between elements of material and nonmaterial culture? 7) How can you account for the fact that nonmaterial culture is more resistant to change than material culture?
II. Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions:
society, culture, cultural universals, innovation, discovery, invention, diffusion, material culture, nonmaterial culture.
III. Speak on human culture and Its aspects in brief and illustrate your reports with examples and situations of your own.
IV. Name the cultural universals and comment on them. Why do you think anthropologists have selected these items of human culture as cultural universals?
V. Comment on the statement that culture is the totality of learned, sociallytransmitted behavior.
VI. Give your own examples of innovations (both discoveries and inventions) and diffusions in our daily life.
1. Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words. Pay attention to the stresses: conscientious, photograph, anonymous, antithesis, ambiguous, homogeneous, megalomania, coincidence, cleavage, languorous, incisive, psychic, itinerary. 2. Read out the passage beginning with "For the first time..." up to TB show it to somebody, he thought" using proper tone groups and observing the rhythm. Convey proper attitudes and all the phonetic phenomena... [читать подробенее]
1. Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words: dewy, meadow, cartoon, Captain Kangaroo, episode, mass media, influential, environment, catalogue, brochure, credulous, sophisticated, deliberate, addictive, subtle, vicious, altruistic, stimulate, control, advertise, permissible, digest, identify, abbreviate, programme, persuasively, agency, intellect, design, available, intricate, isolate, giant, conglomerate, audio, contribute, charitable. 2. Practise... [читать подробенее]
1. a) Consult a dictionary and transcribe the following words from the text. Practise their pronunciation paying attention to stresses: unanimous, corroborative, appreciation, naked, aridity, iota, subsequent, contraband, sheriff, circumstantial, persevering, unmitigated, aisle, exit, caliber, perspire, distaff, executive, inferiority, gavel, conduct (v, n), minute, indict, loosen. b) Listen to your partners' reading of the above exercise. Correct their mistakes. 2. Read out the... [читать подробенее]
Additional Vocabulary 1. regular ['regjul&... [читать подробенее]
Additional Vocabulary 1. materials science - материаловедение 2. engineering [,end&... [читать подробенее]
Joint - соединение, стык, шов Bond - перевязка кирпичной кладки, тип кладки, рисунок на поверхности стены Header - тычок кирпича, кирпичной кладки Stretcher - ложок кирпича Brick laying - ведение кирпичной кладки 8. course [k&... [читать подробенее]
I. Reread the text and answer the following questions: 1) What is education if viewed as an aspect of socialization? 2) What is the functionalist view on education? 3) What are the functions of education in modern society? 4) How can you prove that there are the conservative functions of education? 5) Can education bring about desired social change? 6) What is the conflict perspective on education? 7) What factors prove that education maintains social class differences? 8) Why are... [читать подробенее]
I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) How can you prove that social interaction and social structure are central to sociological study? 2) Why do we have to reconstruct, redefine and sometimes reshape social reality? 3) Why is it important to understand that negotiations are not merely an aspect of social interaction? 4) What elements make up the social structure of a society? 5) How can you account for the fact that a person may hold several statuses? 6) Why are social... [читать подробенее]
I. Reread the text and answer the following questions. 1) What research techniques do sociologists regularly use to generate data? 2) What is considered to be the classic method of conducting an experiment? 3) What problems does the sociologist face in conducting participant observation research? 4) What are the advantages of an interview and a questionnaire? 5) What basic techniques of unobtrusive measurement do you know? 6) Are different research designs viewed as mutually exclusive? 7)... [читать подробенее]
VOCABULARY PRACTICE I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary. II. Find In the text the English equivalents of the following: человеческое общество, иметь общее наследие, ценности, передавать из поколения в поколение, если бы не, пройти долгий путь развития, значительные успехи в культуре, несмотря на... [читать подробенее]