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Социология Revision Exercises on Unit Eight
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COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

I. Reread the text and answer the following questions:

1) What is social inequality usually based on? 2) Why is stratification one of the most important and complex subjects of sociological investigation? 3) What forms of stratification exist in all societies? 4) What is stratification by social class? 5) What is the difference between a racial group and an ethnic group? 6) Does a minority group always constitute a numerical minority? 7) Are there «pure races» in a biological sense? 8) How can different social groups relate to one another in a society? 9) What patterns of intergroup relations do you know? 10) What is stratification by gender based on? 11) How can you prove that ours is a men's world? 12) What are the traditional male and female gender roles? 13) What shows that women gain some degree of power at present? 14) Do barriers still remain? 15) What are the social consequences of women's employment? 16) What is stratification by age? 17) How can you prove the subordinate status of the elderly in all societies?

II. Speak on social inequality, stratification and its firms in brief and illustrate your reports withexamples and situations of your own.

III. Speak about the social inequality and stratification in the Russian society commenting on the following problems:

1) The roots of social inequality in our society. 2) Class distinctions and division in Russia. 3) Russian women — the oppressed majority. 4) The attitude to the elderly in our society.

IV. Describe your own experiences as a member of our society:

Do you feel any social inequality? Do you hold any class consciousness? Are you a member of a minority or a majority group? Do you think that your gender identity determines your gender role? Are there any problems in «being young»? Will all these distinctions influence your future opportunities and in what ways?

I. Revise the active vocabulary and the definitions of the key terms of the unit eight and translate the following intoEnglish.

1) Передача знаний — одна из базовых функций образова­ния. 2) Обеспечение социальной и политической интеграции об­щества — это еще одна важная функция образования. 3) Третья функция образования — это поддержание общественного конт­роля. 4) Образование также может стимулировать и вызывать не­обходимые социальные изменения. 5) Теоретики конфликтного подхода к образованию утверждают, что образование сохраняет классовые различия в обществе. 6) Неравный доступ к высшему образованию очевиден во многих странах мира. 7) Стратифика­ция — это один из самых важных и сложных предметов социоло­гического исследования, так как она оказывает большое влияние на человеческие взаимоотношения и социальные институты. 8) Стратификация по социальному классу основана на различиях в получении дохода и на неравных источниках приобретения бо­гатства. 9) Расовая и этническая стратификация основана на раз­личиях между группами меньшинств и группой социального боль­шинства. 10) Стратификация по полу основана на теории сексизма, ᴛ.ᴇ. на превосходстве одного пола над другим. 11) Подчинœенный статус пожилых существует во всœех обществах мира, и это еще одна форма стратификации.

II. Reread the texts of unit eight again and discuss the problem-questions given in the learning objectives in the introduction tothe unit.

III. Comment on the following questions thinking like sociologists.

1) «All animals are equal. But some animals are more equal than others» (George Orwell «Animal Farm», 1945).

2) «The sociologist is a person intensively, endlessly, shamelessly interested in the doings of people» (Peter L. Berger «Invitation to Sociology», 1963).

CONTENTS

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ........................................................................................................................................ 3

Unit One. THE NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY...................................................................................... 5

Looking Ahead........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Learning Objectives................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

Text I. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?............................................................................................................................................................... 5

VOCABULARY PRACTICE....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES.............................................................................................................................................................. 7

Text II. WHAT IS SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY? ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY................................................................................ 7

VOCABULARY PRACTICE....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES.............................................................................................................................................................. 9

Revision Exercises on Unit One........................................................................................................................................................ 10

Unit Two. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH.................... 11

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

Text III. WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC METHOD?...................................................................................................................................... 11

In Summary: Scientific Method........................................................................................................................................................ 12

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 13

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 13

Text IV. RESEARCH DESIGNS FOR COLLECTING DATA. ETHICS OF RESEARCH........................................................... 14

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 16

Revision Exercises on Unit Two....................................................................................................................................................... 17

Unit Three. ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE:.................................................................................. 19

CULTURE................................................................................................................................................. 19

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 19

Text V. DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE.............................................................................................................................................. 19

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 20

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 21

Text VI. ELEMENTS OF CULTURE..................................................................................................................................................... 21

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 23

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 24

Revision Exercises on Unit Three.................................................................................................................................................... 24

Unit Four. SOCIALIZATION............................................................................................................ 26

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 26

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 26

Text VII. THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION........................................................................................................................................ 26

SELF-IDENTITY AND SOCIALIZATION............................................................................................................................................. 26

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 27

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 28

Text VIII. SOCIALIZATION AND THE LIFE CYCLE..................................................................................................................... 29

AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION............................................................................................................................................................... 29

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 31

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 32

Revision Exercises on Unit Four...................................................................................................................................................... 32

Unit Five. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE. SOCIAL CONTROL... 34

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 34

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 34

Text IX. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND REALITY........................................................................................................................... 34

ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE................................................................................................................................................. 34

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 36

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 37

Text X. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE DEVIANCE AND CRIME....................................................................................... 38

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 40

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 41

Revision Exercises on Unit five........................................................................................................................................................ 42

Unit Six. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: THE FAMILY, THE RELIGION....................................... 44

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 44

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 44

Text XI. THE FAMILY: UNIVERSAL BUT VARIED....................................................................................................................... 44

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 45

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 46

Text XII. RELIGION................................................................................................................................................................................. 47

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 49

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 49

Revision Exercises on Unit Six.......................................................................................................................................................... 50

Unit Seven. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.

THE ECONOMY...................................................................................................................................... 52

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 52

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 52

Text XIII. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS....................................................................................................................................... 52

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 54

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 55

Text XIV. THE ECONOMY..................................................................................................................................................................... 56

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 57

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 58

Revision Exercises on Unit Seven.................................................................................................................................................... 58

Unit Eight. EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION. SOCIAL INEQUALITY.............. 60

Looking Ahead......................................................................................................................................................................................... 60

Learning Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................................. 60

Text XV. EDUCATION............................................................................................................................................................................. 60

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 61

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 62

Text XV I. SOCIAL INEQUALITY........................................................................................................................................................ 63

VOCABULARY PRACTICE..................................................................................................................................................................... 65

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES........................................................................................................................................................... 66

Revision Exercises on Unit Eight.................................................................................................................................................... 66


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