Социология VOCABULARY PRACTICE просмотров - 47
In Summary: Scientific Method
Let us briefly summarize the process of scientific method through a review of the example. The researchersdefined the problem (the relationship between homelessness and mental illness). Theyreviewed the literature (other studies of the presence of mental illness among the homeless) andformulated the hypothesis («Most homeless persons are not mentally ill»). Snow and his colleaguescollected the data by creating an appropriate sample of homeless persons andanalyzed them. Finally, theydeveloped the conclusion: the typical homeless person is likely not to have a history of mental illness. Thus, through the systematic application of scientific method, these researchers studied a contemporary social issue and generated meaningful findings of interest to sociologists, mental health workers and policy makers.
I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary.
II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following:
отдельная проблема (спорный вопрос), интересовать (касаться) кого-либо, гарантировать объективность и последовательность, определить проблему, изучить литературу, сформулировать гипотезу, выбрать план исследования, собрать и проанализировать данные, сделать вывод, актуальный пример, главным образом, ясно определить, средства массовой информации, персонал, провести обзор, четко определить проблему исследования, выявить технические приемы, избегать ошибок, постоянный образ, соответствовать чему-либо, значимый, иметь в виду (подразумевать), подтвердить, опровергать, пересмотреть, конечный результат исследования, руководить (направлять), отбирать, случайный отбор, провести отбор для исследования, завершить отдельную фазу исследования, создавать идеи для будущего изучения, попасть в ловушку, представлять интерес для.
III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below:
1) Like the ... on the street, the sociologist is interested in questions that... most people. 2) A... of scientific method is planning. 3) Sociologists do not simply ... the door or ... the telephone to learn more about human behavior. 4) People in the United States became ... of the plight of the homeless in the nation's ... centers. 5) Sociologists try to develop ... questions. 6) First, they reviewed ... such as «Time», «Newsweek» and «People». 7) Second, they examined ... done in Boston and New York. 8) Still ... review refuted this hypothesis. 9) A hypothesis ... tells us what we are looking for in our research. 10) In formulating a hypothesis we ... suggest that it is ... study. 11) Sociologists ... one of the research designs. 12) The random sample is ... used by social scientists. 13) Scientific studies do not ... to answer all the questions about .... 14) The conclusion of a research study... both an end, and a beginning. 15) The homeless are merely trapped in economic conditions that lead to ... and .... 16)... further implications are evident. 17)... contributes to homelessness. 18) Through ... of scientific method the researchers studied a ... social issue ... to sociologists,... and ... .
policy makers, mental health workers, contemporary, the systematic application, the inadequate supply of low-costing housing, with this finding in mind, poverty, despair, represents, aim, a particular object, frequently, employ, merely, worthy of, essentially, further, the systematic studies, «popular magazines», researchable, aware, urban, walk out, pick up, key element, typical citizen, concern, of interest.
IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:
to be interested in, to concern smb, (un)like smb, to ensure smth, the workings of a method, to be aware of, to tend to smth, to state as clearly as possible, to present ... as ... , to be representative of, to conduct a review, to avoid doing smth, further (review, investigation, etc.), to focus on, to imply, to be worthy of, to depend on, ultimately, both ... and ..., to be true of, to confirm a hypothesis, to make changes in, to be trapped, to lead to poverty and despair, to contribute to, an (in)adequate supply of, to be of interest to smb.
Unit 5. Russian houses and flats Ex. 4. Answer the questions. 1. How many rooms are there in the Garretts’ house? 2. What rooms are there on the ground floor? 3. What room will Sasha be sleeping in? 4. What do they use their recreation room for? 5. Do different appliances at home make our life easier and more convenient? 6. Why do the Garretts like to use a microwave oven? 7. What do they use a dishwasher for? 8. How does an electric can opener work? 9. Why is it convenient to use... [читать подробенее]
Reading 4. Read the text and answer the questions below. Procrastination – a difficult word that makes life difficult This word is not often used, and probably you’ve never come across it before, still a lot of people (including you may be) procrastinate every day of their lives. Longman dictionary gives the following definition: to procrastinate – to delay repeatedly and without good reason doing something that must be done. How often do you put off doing something? You... [читать подробенее]
Reading 4. Read and translate the text, pick out the words describing traits of a person’s character; memorize them. Meeting people for the first time we always make a judgment based on their appearance and behaviour. Each person has a nature of his own. Some people are diligent, industrious and persistent; others are double-faced, hot-tempered, irritable, callous; still others are touchy, shy, modest or kind. And there are some other types of people. If you are a determined and... [читать подробенее]
Ways to grow old and to stay young Keeping fit Physical fitness is a general state of good health, usually as a result of exercise and nutrition. Physical fitness can also be described as a condition that allows us to look, feel and do our best. Being fit helps us have more energy for work or studies throughout the day, and energy left over to enjoy our leisure time activities. It is also the ability to withstand stress and to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person... [читать подробенее]
CONVERSATION 2. Study the following dialogues. The first one is between Mrs. Smith and her younger son John. The second is between Mrs. Smith and a shop assistant. A. It’s Saturday morning and Mrs. Smith is going shopping. Mrs. S: John, I’m going to the shops. Is there anything you want? John: Yes, please! Can you pick up my magazine from the newsagent’s? Mrs. S: Of course. Do you want to come with me? John: No way, I’m going round to... [читать подробенее]
Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences with some of them (5-10) Tasks RHYTHM Text 2 THE LANGUAGE OF LITERATURE: Every language has rhythm as a result of its prosodic features. These features, especially stress and pauses, are used not only to emphasize, express emotion, and signal grammatical units but also to make a pattern of strong and weak beats—a rhythm. The most precise rhythmic patterns are found in poetry, but... [читать подробенее]
Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of your own. Tasks POETRY Text 5 Express your own opinion of the content and expression-plane of the text. Discuss the text in class. Present a summary of the text. Use the vocabulary practiced in tasks 1 and 2 to make up situations of your own. Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of... [читать подробенее]
1. Read these descriptions of different physical topologies of communication networks and match them with the terms in Key information section 4. 1 All the devices are connected to a central station. 2 In tin- type of network there is a cable to which all the computers and peripherals are connected. 3 Two or more star networks connected together; the central computers are connected to a main bus. 4 All devices (computers, printers, etc.) are connected to one another... [читать подробенее]
1. What do the following abbreviations stand for? Choose the correct answer. 1.LAN a. local area network b. large area network 2.PAN a. private area network b. personal area network 3.MAN a. managed area network b. metropolitan area network 4.WAN a. wide area network b. wireless area network 5. VPN a. virtual private network b. virtual public network 6. GAN a. global area network b. great area network 7. WLAN a. wireless local area network b. wide large area network ... [читать подробенее]
1. What do the following stand for? 1. GUI a. graphic user interface b. graphical user interface c. graphical users interface 2. OS a. operating system b. operation system c. operating systematization 3. WIMP a. windows, information, menus, pointer b. windows, icons, memory, pointer c. windows, icons, menus, pointer 2. Decide which of the expressions below best describe a graphical user interface (GUI). user-friendly slow ... [читать подробенее]