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In Summary: Scientific Method

Let us briefly summarize the process of scientific method through a review of the example. The researchersdefined the problem (the relationship between homelessness and mental illness). Theyreviewed the literature (other studies of the presence of mental illness among the homeless) andformulated the hypothesis («Most homeless persons are not mentally ill»). Snow and his colleaguescollected the data by creating an appropriate sample of homeless persons andanalyzed them. Finally, theydeveloped the conclusion: the typical homeless person is likely not to have a history of mental illness. Thus, through the systematic application of scientific method, these researchers studied a contemporary social issue and generated meaningful findings of interest to sociologists, mental health workers and policy makers.

I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary.

II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following:

отдельная проблема (спорный вопрос), интересовать (касать­ся) кого-либо, гарантировать объективность и последовательность, определить проблему, изучить литературу, сформулировать гипо­тезу, выбрать план исследования, собрать и проанализировать данные, сделать вывод, актуальный пример, главным образом, ясно определить, средства массовой информации, персонал, про­вести обзор, четко определить проблему исследования, выявить технические приемы, избегать ошибок, постоянный образ, со­ответствовать чему-либо, значимый, иметь в виду (подразуме­вать), подтвердить, опровергать, пересмотреть, конечный резуль­тат исследования, руководить (направлять), отбирать, случайный отбор, провести отбор для исследования, завершить отдельную фазу исследования, создавать идеи для будущего изучения, по­пасть в ловушку, представлять интерес для.

III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below:

1) Like the ... on the street, the sociologist is interested in questions that... most people. 2) A... of scientific method is planning. 3) Sociologists do not simply ... the door or ... the telephone to learn more about human behavior. 4) People in the United States became ... of the plight of the homeless in the nation's ... centers. 5) Sociologists try to develop ... questions. 6) First, they reviewed ... such as «Time», «Newsweek» and «People». 7) Second, they examined ... done in Boston and New York. 8) Still ... review refuted this hypothesis. 9) A hypothesis ... tells us what we are looking for in our research. 10) In formulating a hypothesis we ... suggest that it is ... study. 11) Sociologists ... one of the research designs. 12) The random sample is ... used by social scientists. 13) Scientific studies do not ... to answer all the questions about .... 14) The conclusion of a research study... both an end, and a beginning. 15) The homeless are merely trapped in economic conditions that lead to ... and .... 16)... further implications are evident. 17)... contributes to homelessness. 18) Through ... of scientific method the researchers studied a ... social issue ... to sociologists,... and ... .

policy makers, mental health workers, contemporary, the systematic application, the inadequate supply of low-costing housing, with this finding in mind, poverty, despair, represents, aim, a particular object, frequently, employ, merely, worthy of, essentially, further, the systematic studies, «popular magazines», researchable, aware, urban, walk out, pick up, key element, typical citizen, concern, of interest.

IV. Studythe following words and word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:

to be interested in, to concern smb, (un)like smb, to ensure smth, the workings of a method, to be aware of, to tend to smth, to state as clearly as possible, to present ... as ... , to be representative of, to conduct a review, to avoid doing smth, further (review, investigation, etc.), to focus on, to imply, to be worthy of, to depend on, ultimately, both ... and ..., to be true of, to confirm a hypothesis, to make changes in, to be trapped, to lead to poverty and despair, to contribute to, an (in)adequate supply of, to be of interest to smb.

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