Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


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I. Read and translate the text using a dictionaryif necessary.

II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following:

определять (регулировать), постановления (какой-либо орга­низации), подчиняться, справиться с чем-либо, наконец, созда­вать законы, проводить в жизнь (закон), предполагать, оказаться в состоянии сделать что-либо, оказаться перед опасностью нака­зания, страх, насмешка, тюремное заключение, штраф, метод (средство), соответствие, подчинœение, давление, согласие (ус­тупчивость), вышестоящие власти, иерархический, новобранец, поступать на военную службу, старшие офицеры, осуществлять, случайно (непостоянно), поднять бровь (в знак удивления), свод законов, суд (учреждение), поддерживать, быть направленным на правило (положение), быть нацелœенным на, извращение, ис­порченность (развращение), нарушать нормы поведения, акт неподчинœения, то же самое относится к, не подлежать преследо­ванию, брать взятку, бросать вызов, вызов (открытое неповино­вение), отклонение от норм, не говоря о, неуместный, подпевать, относительный, кричащие болельщики, применить наказа­ние, строгость (суровость), проступок, правонарушитель, разли­чать, совершить преступление, проявлять заботу о, убийство, изнасилование, грабеж, нападение, кража со взломом, воров­ство, поджог, незаконная деятельность, взлом сейфа, карманная кража, ограбление магазина, продажа наркотиков, азартные игры, размещать, назначать цены, третейский судья, внутренние раз­борки, уклонение от уплаты налогов на доходы, биржевые мани­пуляции, обман потребителœей, взяточничество, растрата͵ иска­жение сведений при рекламе, жертва, личное благосостояние, против воли, добровольный обмен, пьянство, наркотики (2).

III. Supply the missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below.

1) Every culture and society has destructive norms ... what is called ... behavior. 2) In organization we must... with a formal system of rules and .... 3) Without thinking we follow the ... rules at our jobs. 4)... for social control can be viewed on both the group and society ... . 5) The sanctions used to ... conformity and obedience and to ... violation of social norms are... through informal and formal social control. 6) Informal social control is used by people .... 7) Formal social control is carried out by .... 8) Sociologists have become ... interested in the creation of laws as a social process. 9) In their view, law is not... a static body of rules ... from generation to generation. 10) Being late for class is ... as a ... act. 11) Deviance involves both ... behavior and many actions not ... to prosecution. 12) Standards of deviance ... from one group to another. 13) In our society it is generally considered ... to ... at a rock or folk concert, but not at the opera. 14) Sociologists classify crimes in terms of how they are ... and how the offenses are ... by society. 15) Index crimes consist of serious offenses that people think of when they ... about the nation's crime problems. 16) Many people make a career of ... . 17) Organized crime refers to the work of a group that... relations between various criminal ... . 18) Certain crimes are committed by ... people in the course of their .... 19) There is a wide ... of offenses that are classified as ... . 20) In white-collar or index crimes, people's economic or personal... is ... against their ... or without their .... 21)... sociologists use the term victimless crimes to describe the ... exchange among ... of widely ... but ... goods and services.

by contrast, willing, adults, desired, illegal, well-being, endangered, will, knowledge, variety, white-collar crimes, «respectable», daily business activities, regulates, enterprises, illegal activities, express concern, committed, viewed, acceptable, sing along, vary, criminal, subject, categorized, deviant, merely, handed down, increasingly, authorized agents, casually, encourage, discourage, carried out, techniques, level, day-to-day, cope, regulations, governing, appropriate.

IV. Studythe following word combinations and use them in sentences of your own.

to govern smth, to occur on a level, to obey smb, to cope with smth, to legislate smth, to enforce smth, to respect and to accept smth, to follow the day-to-day rules, to fail to do smth, to face smth, a response to smth, to go along with smth, to direct smth at smb, to conform to smth, to encourage smb to do smth, to discourage smb from doing smth, to carry out smth, to back smth, to be aimed at smth, to become increasingly interested in smth, to be opposite to smth, to violate the standards of conduct, to be late for smth, on the basis of smth, to be subject to prosecution, to take a bribe, to defy social norms, to cut classes, let alone smth, to be out of place, to be relative to smth, to be a common practice, to be symptomatic of smth, to be divided into various categories, to distinguish between smth, in terms of, to consist of smth, to express concern about smth, to make smth as a day-by-day occupation, to develop skilled techniques, to specialize in smth, to commit a crime, to misrepresent in advertising, to endanger one's well-being.

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