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Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.

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Социология VOCABULARY PRACTICE
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I. Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary.

II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following:

предсказуемый (ожидаемый), отличительная черта͵ ответ (ре­акция) на, придавать значение чему-либо, внутри общества, формировать, иметь иное представление о чем-либо, вести пере­говоры (договариваться) о чем-либо, попытка (пытаться), дос­тигнуть соглашения, относительно чего-либо (2), очередь в мага­зинœе, принимать гораздо более сложные формы, рассматривать что-либо, отражать, просто (только), подчеркивать, подвержен­ный изменениям, торговаться, идти на компромисс, обменивать(­ся), создавать структуру, значительно отличаться от, подобным образом, в случайном разговоре, одновременно, иметь статус, в основном (главным образом), достигать, определять, перевесить, на протяжении нашей жизни, ожидания (надежды), надежный, обходиться (обращаться) с чем-либо, сообщение по телœефону, брать на себя ответственность, канцелярские обязанности, важ­ный (значительный), давать возможность (право), предвкушать (предчувствовать), моделировать что-либо, соответственно, со­знательно, братство, женское общество, добиваться целœей, жизненный (насущный), промежуточное звено, здравоохранение, убеждение, выживать — выживание, предпосылки, не случайно, поддерживать привилегии, беспомощность, налог на собствен­ность, процветающая община, содействовать, способствовать (делать вклад), источник социальных проблем, зависеть от кого-либо в чем-либо, гарантировать, управлять (регулировать), рас­сматривать с точки зрения, обусловить, в свою очередь.

III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below.

1) These concepts focus on how different aspects of human behavior are ... to one another. 2) Our ... to someone's behavior is based on the meaning we ... to his or her actions. 3) The ... to define social reality plays a very important role in our socialization ... a society. 4) Thus, people can ... or ... social reality and ... it. 5) In modern society negotiations can take ... forms. 6) Most elements of our social behavior are not .... and are, therefore,... to change. 7) The elements of a society's social structure can vary ... . 8) In ... conversation the term «status» usually ... the meaning of influence, wealth, and fame. 9) A person ... more than one status ... . 10) We have to ... to our biological statuses, though we can ... to change the way in which they are .... 11) A master status ... others and ... a person's social position. 12) With each ... status come ... role expectations. 13) However, ... performance varies from individual to individual. 14) Roles are a ... component of social structure. 15) We learn how ... a social role by ... the behavior and interaction of others. 16) The members of a college ... or ... constitute a group. 17) We ... groups to establish friendships. 18) Much of our social interaction is ... by the norms and sanctions ... by groups. 19) Sociologists have ... five major tasks that a society must ... if it is .... 20) Other sociologists ... the social institutions from a conflict perspective. 21) The outcome of this organization is not ... efficient and desirable. 22) Public schools in the USA are ... largely through property taxes. 23) This allows children from communities to be prepared better ... than children from poor .... 24) It has become ... to attack social institutions. 25) Social institutions ... our daily life. 26) Our everyday behavior is ... by social institutions and is ... by the overall social structure of the modern society.

governed, influenced, affect, fashionable, prosperous, to compete academically, communities, financed, necessarily, evaluate, identified, accomplish, to survive, conditioned, established, seek out, fraternity, sorority, to fulfill, observing, significant, actual, distinctive, particular, dominates, determines, adapt, attempt, viewed, holds, simultaneously, casual, conveys, dramatically, static, subject, much more elaborate, reconstruct, redefine, reshape, ability, within, response, attach, related.

IV. Studythe following word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:

to refer to, to be related to, in other words, to take a different view of, to negotiate changes, to reach agreement, to be viewed as fixed, to be subject to change, to provide guidelines, to make up smth, to vary dramatically, without regard for, to far outweigh smth, to dominate one's life, to influence smth, to have an important impact on, to acquire smth, to handle smth, to assume some responsibilities, to contribute to smth, to enable smb to do smth, to anticipate smth, to pattern one's actions (behavior) accordingly, to be composed of, to accomplish a goal, to establish smth, to center on smth, to identify a prerequisite, to preserve order, to be no accident, to maintain a privilege, to be financed, to promote (un)equal treatment of smb, to attack smb, to depend on smb for smth, to affect smth, to govern smth, to condition smth, to belong to smb.


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