Социология VOCABULARY PRACTICE просмотров - 38
I. Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary.
II. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following:
предсказуемый (ожидаемый), отличительная черта͵ ответ (реакция) на, придавать значение чему-либо, внутри общества, формировать, иметь иное представление о чем-либо, вести переговоры (договариваться) о чем-либо, попытка (пытаться), достигнуть соглашения, относительно чего-либо (2), очередь в магазине, принимать гораздо более сложные формы, рассматривать что-либо, отражать, просто (только), подчеркивать, подверженный изменениям, торговаться, идти на компромисс, обменивать(ся), создавать структуру, значительно отличаться от, подобным образом, в случайном разговоре, одновременно, иметь статус, в основном (главным образом), достигать, определять, перевесить, на протяжении нашей жизни, ожидания (надежды), надежный, обходиться (обращаться) с чем-либо, сообщение по телефону, брать на себя ответственность, канцелярские обязанности, важный (значительный), давать возможность (право), предвкушать (предчувствовать), моделировать что-либо, соответственно, сознательно, братство, женское общество, добиваться целей, жизненный (насущный), промежуточное звено, здравоохранение, убеждение, выживать — выживание, предпосылки, не случайно, поддерживать привилегии, беспомощность, налог на собственность, процветающая община, содействовать, способствовать (делать вклад), источник социальных проблем, зависеть от кого-либо в чем-либо, гарантировать, управлять (регулировать), рассматривать с точки зрения, обусловить, в свою очередь.
III. Supplythe missing words or word combinations choosing among those given below.
1) These concepts focus on how different aspects of human behavior are ... to one another. 2) Our ... to someone's behavior is based on the meaning we ... to his or her actions. 3) The ... to define social reality plays a very important role in our socialization ... a society. 4) Thus, people can ... or ... social reality and ... it. 5) In modern society negotiations can take ... forms. 6) Most elements of our social behavior are not .... and are, therefore,... to change. 7) The elements of a society's social structure can vary ... . 8) In ... conversation the term «status» usually ... the meaning of influence, wealth, and fame. 9) A person ... more than one status ... . 10) We have to ... to our biological statuses, though we can ... to change the way in which they are .... 11) A master status ... others and ... a person's social position. 12) With each ... status come ... role expectations. 13) However, ... performance varies from individual to individual. 14) Roles are a ... component of social structure. 15) We learn how ... a social role by ... the behavior and interaction of others. 16) The members of a college ... or ... constitute a group. 17) We ... groups to establish friendships. 18) Much of our social interaction is ... by the norms and sanctions ... by groups. 19) Sociologists have ... five major tasks that a society must ... if it is .... 20) Other sociologists ... the social institutions from a conflict perspective. 21) The outcome of this organization is not ... efficient and desirable. 22) Public schools in the USA are ... largely through property taxes. 23) This allows children from communities to be prepared better ... than children from poor .... 24) It has become ... to attack social institutions. 25) Social institutions ... our daily life. 26) Our everyday behavior is ... by social institutions and is ... by the overall social structure of the modern society.
governed, influenced, affect, fashionable, prosperous, to compete academically, communities, financed, necessarily, evaluate, identified, accomplish, to survive, conditioned, established, seek out, fraternity, sorority, to fulfill, observing, significant, actual, distinctive, particular, dominates, determines, adapt, attempt, viewed, holds, simultaneously, casual, conveys, dramatically, static, subject, much more elaborate, reconstruct, redefine, reshape, ability, within, response, attach, related.
IV. Studythe following word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:
to refer to, to be related to, in other words, to take a different view of, to negotiate changes, to reach agreement, to be viewed as fixed, to be subject to change, to provide guidelines, to make up smth, to vary dramatically, without regard for, to far outweigh smth, to dominate one's life, to influence smth, to have an important impact on, to acquire smth, to handle smth, to assume some responsibilities, to contribute to smth, to enable smb to do smth, to anticipate smth, to pattern one's actions (behavior) accordingly, to be composed of, to accomplish a goal, to establish smth, to center on smth, to identify a prerequisite, to preserve order, to be no accident, to maintain a privilege, to be financed, to promote (un)equal treatment of smb, to attack smb, to depend on smb for smth, to affect smth, to govern smth, to condition smth, to belong to smb.
Unit 5. Russian houses and flats Ex. 4. Answer the questions. 1. How many rooms are there in the Garretts’ house? 2. What rooms are there on the ground floor? 3. What room will Sasha be sleeping in? 4. What do they use their recreation room for? 5. Do different appliances at home make our life easier and more convenient? 6. Why do the Garretts like to use a microwave oven? 7. What do they use a dishwasher for? 8. How does an electric can opener work? 9. Why is it convenient to use... [читать подробенее]
Reading 4. Read the text and answer the questions below. Procrastination – a difficult word that makes life difficult This word is not often used, and probably you’ve never come across it before, still a lot of people (including you may be) procrastinate every day of their lives. Longman dictionary gives the following definition: to procrastinate – to delay repeatedly and without good reason doing something that must be done. How often do you put off doing something? You... [читать подробенее]
Reading 4. Read and translate the text, pick out the words describing traits of a person’s character; memorize them. Meeting people for the first time we always make a judgment based on their appearance and behaviour. Each person has a nature of his own. Some people are diligent, industrious and persistent; others are double-faced, hot-tempered, irritable, callous; still others are touchy, shy, modest or kind. And there are some other types of people. If you are a determined and... [читать подробенее]
Ways to grow old and to stay young Keeping fit Physical fitness is a general state of good health, usually as a result of exercise and nutrition. Physical fitness can also be described as a condition that allows us to look, feel and do our best. Being fit helps us have more energy for work or studies throughout the day, and energy left over to enjoy our leisure time activities. It is also the ability to withstand stress and to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person... [читать подробенее]
CONVERSATION 2. Study the following dialogues. The first one is between Mrs. Smith and her younger son John. The second is between Mrs. Smith and a shop assistant. A. It’s Saturday morning and Mrs. Smith is going shopping. Mrs. S: John, I’m going to the shops. Is there anything you want? John: Yes, please! Can you pick up my magazine from the newsagent’s? Mrs. S: Of course. Do you want to come with me? John: No way, I’m going round to... [читать подробенее]
Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences with some of them (5-10) Tasks RHYTHM Text 2 THE LANGUAGE OF LITERATURE: Every language has rhythm as a result of its prosodic features. These features, especially stress and pauses, are used not only to emphasize, express emotion, and signal grammatical units but also to make a pattern of strong and weak beats—a rhythm. The most precise rhythmic patterns are found in poetry, but... [читать подробенее]
Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of your own. Tasks POETRY Text 5 Express your own opinion of the content and expression-plane of the text. Discuss the text in class. Present a summary of the text. Use the vocabulary practiced in tasks 1 and 2 to make up situations of your own. Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of... [читать подробенее]
1. Read these descriptions of different physical topologies of communication networks and match them with the terms in Key information section 4. 1 All the devices are connected to a central station. 2 In tin- type of network there is a cable to which all the computers and peripherals are connected. 3 Two or more star networks connected together; the central computers are connected to a main bus. 4 All devices (computers, printers, etc.) are connected to one another... [читать подробенее]
1. What do the following abbreviations stand for? Choose the correct answer. 1.LAN a. local area network b. large area network 2.PAN a. private area network b. personal area network 3.MAN a. managed area network b. metropolitan area network 4.WAN a. wide area network b. wireless area network 5. VPN a. virtual private network b. virtual public network 6. GAN a. global area network b. great area network 7. WLAN a. wireless local area network b. wide large area network ... [читать подробенее]
1. What do the following stand for? 1. GUI a. graphic user interface b. graphical user interface c. graphical users interface 2. OS a. operating system b. operation system c. operating systematization 3. WIMP a. windows, information, menus, pointer b. windows, icons, memory, pointer c. windows, icons, menus, pointer 2. Decide which of the expressions below best describe a graphical user interface (GUI). user-friendly slow ... [читать подробенее]