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Психология Adjustment
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VIII. Read the text and then translate it in writing.

VII. Give the summary of the text.

VI. Make up sentences from the following words and word combinations.

V. Complete the sentences.

IV. Find English equivalents in the text

III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).

What meanings have different colors in your country?

Innocence and purity, to go with everything, to imply sterility, to stimulate a faster heartbeat and breathing, extreme color, to produce calming chemicals, people lose their tempers, artificial, food for thought.

Содержать в чистоте, эмоционально насыщенный цвет, цель для похитителœей, терять энергию, депрессивный, символизировать лояльность, неудача, ассоциироваться с роскошью, быть склонным. Food for Thought

1. Colors often have …

2. Some fashion experts say …

3. Black outfits can …

4. Yellow enhances concentration …

5. Sports teams sometimes …

1. depressing,blue, also, cold, can, be, and.

2. relaxes, hospitals, green, often, use, because, it, patients.

3. men, more, are, to say, favorite, brown, is, one, of, colors, apt, their.

4. popular, red, cars, are, for, targets, thieves.

5. popular, while, is, the least, one, of the most, it, is, one, of, appetizing, blue, colors.

This term "adjustment" is useful to us describing or explaining a person's behaviour. We judge the individual as adjusted when he behaves in the "right" way, in the way accepted by the group, when he conforms to the general pattern of society. A person described as "not adjusted" or "maladjusted" would be one whose behaviour varied so much from the general accepted pattern that he did not fit in, was not acceptable to the group. Giving this meaning, adjustment to the society in which the individual is operating, it follows that a person's behaviour might be regarded as adjusted on some occasions, when in one group, and yet be maladjusted when with another group. The schoolboy whose behav­iour is adjusted to his gang of fellows, and who is regarded as one of the leaders by them, may, with the same type of behaviour be regarded by his teachers as one of the ring leaders of misbehaviour in class, and as maladjusted to some degree. The normal standards of behaviour accepted by the two groups are widely different. The "normal standards of behaviour" are sometimes referred to as "norms" of behaviour. We say that the norms vary from society to society, and that the person is adjusted to the norms of a particular group, and malad­justed when compared with the norms of another group.

As well as having norms which are appropriate to particular societies, we have norms of behaviour which are appropriate to particular ages. We can, therefore, describe a person as adjusted or maladjusted in comparison with the behaviour accepted as suitable to his age-group. Whereas it may be quite natu­ral and normal for a child of four or five to indulge in tantrums and fits of temper and tears, we should regard such behaviour as abnormal in a fourteen or fifteen years old. Our term "adjusted", then, refers to a child whose behaviour is regard­ed by others as suitable for the society of which he is a member, and also as suitable for his age.

How to children become adjusted? By learning the right behaviour pat­terns. Where do they learn these patterns? In all the situations in which they find themselves, home, village, school, etc. From whom do they learn? From all the other individuals making up those groups. The simplest explanation, and with young children this may well be complete explanation, is that specific responses are learnt for specific situations: when the bell rings, to stop run­ning around and line up near the school entrance; when a visitor enters the classroom, to stand and respond to his greeting; when a bag or handkerchief or other piece of unclaimed property is found in the school, to hand it to the teacher. These responses are learnt because if they are made the child is re­warded by the approval of the school; if they are not made, the disapproval of the school is shown. When teachers speak of discipline in school, they often mean this sort of learning of, and conforming to, rules which preserve the order and peace of the classroom and the school. In order to achieve such a state it is desirable to be consistent and unvarying in the application of ap­proval and disapproval, so that pupils get a clear idea of what kinds of behav­iour are acceptable. A child who has learnt the whole range of behaviour suited to the many school situations, and consistently uses those actions, would fit our definition of adjustment; his behaviour would be that expected and accepted by the school society.


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