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Психология Child Welfare
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Child welfare is the term used to refer to a broad range of social programs that contribute to the well-being of children. In the United States, child-welfare programs are adapted to the needs of children whose families do not have the means or the inclination to take proper care of them. Some estimates suggest that this group involves 1 out of 20 children under18 years of age.

Few efforts were made by any government to protect the health and welfare of children before the 20th century. In the United States, the establishment of the U.S. Children’s Bureau in 1912 marked the beginning of modern child-welfare programs and public recognition of children’s special needs. In 1959 the United Nations adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which affirmed the rights of children everywhere to receive adequate care from parents and the community. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in 1989, attempts to consolidate international law on the basic rights of children to survival, education, and protection from abuse and exploitation.

A variety of child-welfare service programs are conducted under public and private auspices in the United States. These can be categorized as support services, supplementary programs, or substitute care.

Family-service agencies, guidance clinics, and agencies that furnish protection to children are considered support services. These services attempt to sustain a child within a family that is undergoing stress because of illness, unemployment, divorce, or the presence of only one parent. The family services and child-guidance clinics work on parent-child relationship problems through individual and group counseling; the guidance clinics also give help to parents with emotionally disturbed children.

Since 1962 child protection has been the responsibility of public agencies. All states today have mandatory laws that require the reporting of incidents of child abuse. Investigation and appropriate action is then undertaken by a public agency. When it appears that parents cannot or will not provide adequate care, the agency may petition the court for temporary removal of a child to a substitute-care facility; in some cases permanent placement may be necessary. Supplementary services include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and day-care and homemaker services. TANF replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in 1997. AFDC was established by the Social Security Act of 1935. TANF provides distressed families with time-limited financial aid, as well as job training, job-seeking assistance, and work subsidies. It also provides long-term medical care and other social services to children who are in need because of a family crisis—such as divorce or the death, disability, or desertion of a parent—and includes a variety of programs aimed at determining paternity and enforcing child-support payments by absent fathers.

Homemaker services place trained people in the home during the temporary absence of a parent. A homemaker may also teach a parent the skills needed to provide suitable family care or may help parents in the care of a disabled child.

Day-care services provide supervised care outside the home. Day care may be available at group centers, for children from three to five years old, or in individual homes, which usually handle younger children. Group care may be an adjunct to a job-training program for TANF mothers. Day-care centers sometimes offer assistance with a handicapped child whose family needs some relief from the burden of constant care. Some school systems provide late afternoon care for school-age children of working parents. In the 1980s demand for day care far exceeded its availability in most U.S. communities.

Substitute-care facilities include individual foster homes, group homes, and institutional care, as well as adoption services, all of which provide temporary or permanent care for children. By the mid-1980s about 600,000 children were involved annually in substitute placements. It has been estimated that about 30 percent of the youngsters given foster care might have remained at home if support and supplementary services had been available to their families. The role of institutional care has diminished in the United States, although institutions still provide specialized care for some children who are physically handicapped, developmentally disadvantaged, emotionally disturbed, or delinquent.

During the 1970s the U.S. Children’s Bureau (now part of the Administration of Children, Youth and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services) advocated the planning of permanent placements for all children entering foster care. Agency policies and practices were reviewed to identify barriers to adoption. Subsidized adoption, where adoptive parents continued to receive financial payments, made it possible for youngsters with special needs to be adopted by foster parents with whom they had established emotional ties. Some states amended their laws to improve procedures to free children for adoption while equitably balancing the sometimes conflicting interests of the child, the natural parents, and the adoptive parents.

VIII. Fill in the gaps with the proper words:

1. The term child welfare … to a broad range of social programs that contribute to the well-being of children.

2. In the United States, the … of the U.S. Children’s Bureau in 1912 marked the beginning of modern child-welfare programs and public recognition of children’s special needs.

3. A variety of child-welfare service programs can be categorized as … services, … programs, or … care.

4. Day-care services … supervised care outside the home.

5. Day-care centers sometimes offer assistance with a … child whose family needs some relief from the burden of constant care.

6. Substitute-care facilities include individual homes, group homes, and institutional care.

IX. Fill in the proper preposition:

1. Child welfare is the term used to refer … a broad range of social programs that contribute … the well-being of children.

2. In the United States, child-welfare programs are adapted … the needs of children whose families do not have the means or the inclination to take proper care of them.

3. Few efforts were made … any government to protect the health and welfare of children before the 20th century.

4. A variety of child-welfare service programs are conducted … public and private auspices in the United States.

5. Family-service agencies attempt to sustain a child … a family that is undergoing stress because of illness, unemployment, divorce, or the presence of only one parent.

6. Day-care services provide supervised care … the home.

7. Substitute-care facilities include individual foster homes, group homes, and institutional care, as well as adoption services, all of which provide temporary or permanent care … children.

8. The role … institutional care has diminished in the United States, although institutions still provide specialized care for some children who are physically handicapped, developmentally disadvantaged, emotionally disturbed, or delinquent.


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