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Психология CREATIVITY
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V. Translate these phrases from Russian into English.

IV. Choose 5 any words from the vocabulary and make your own sentences with them.

II. Match the words and their definitions

I. Read and learn the following words

CREATIVITY

TEXT 16

X. Work in pairs.

IX. Complete the table.

Mnemonic Systems Advantages Disadvantages
Method of loci    
Peg-word system    
Key-word system    
Repeated Retrieval    

1. Create your own mnemonic devices which help you to memorize information.

2. Tell your partner one of mnemonic devices that you use to memorize information.

● realm [relm] царство, королевство ● solution [sə`lu:∫n] решение ● achievement [ə`t∫i:vmənt] достижение ● mysterious [mi`stiəriəs] загадочный, таинственный ● available [ə`veiləbl] доступный ● creativity [,kri:ei`tivəti] креативность ● stifle [staifl] душить, подавлять ● to come up with находить ответ, идею ● point [pÉint] указывать ● reduce [ri`dju:s] снижать ч.-л. ● to be mired [`maiəd] быть погруженным во ч.-л. ● script [skript] рукопись ● encounter [in`kauntə] сталкиваемся, встречаемся ● assumption [ə`sÙmp∫n] предположение ● stump [stÙmp] быть озадаченным ● implicit [im`plisit] подразумеваемый ● novel [`nÉvl] новый ● inhibition [,inhi`bi∫n] препятствие ● implausible [im`plÉ:zəbl] невероятный ● impede [im`pi:d] препятствовать, мешать ● fractionation дробление, делœение.

mired in a way of solving a problem
impede a thing that smb has done successfully
solution to make smth smaller in quantity, size
to encounter in a difficult of unpleasant situation that you cannot escape from
implicit to experience smth difficult, while you are trying to do smth else
achievement a belief that smth is true although there is no proof
implausible suggested without being directly expressed
reduce not seeming reasonable
assumption to stop the progress of smth

III. Find synonyms for the following words:

solution, assumption, implicit, novel, to point, creativity, impede, mysterious, stifle, inhibition

gift, explanation, enigmatic, supposition, block, implied, obstruction, original, repress, to indicate

Творческие достижения, неразрешимые проблемы, повсœедневная жизнь, снижать творческие способности, поток новых идей, перестать беспокоиться о возможной неудаче, позволить вашему воображению свободно оперировать образами и идеями, оценка может помешать творчеству, говоря то, что им приходит на ум, необычные новые решения, выдвигать идеи, стимулировать (заставлять) других думать, идея делится на части.

VI. Read the text “Creativity”

Creativity enters the realm of problem solving when we produce a solution that is entirely new to us. This is true not just in everyday life but also in the arts, entertainment, the sciences, and technology. Some psychologists believe that creative achievements are neither romantic nor mysterious; instead, they result when highly motivated experts solve ill-defined problems, using the cognitive processes available to all of us.

All of us have some degree of creativity and it can be encouraged or stifled. Too often when we try to solve a problem, we are unable to come up with the new idea that would point the way to a solution. Computer scientists Roger Schank believes that the rules and ready answers of daily life tend to make us depend on somebody else’s solution to a problem and by keeping us from asking questions, effectively reduce our creativity. In this view, we become mired in our scripts. Scripts give us rules for almost every situation we encounter, so we can go about our business efficiently without looking for new solutions. One way to regain a creative approach to problem solving is to learn to question our assumptions.

Some researchers believe that we can improve our ability to detect assumptions we make about the world and so increase our own creativity. Suppose you are stumped by a problem; you have been working on it for a long time and are getting nowhere. If you can identify your implicit assumptions about the problem or the form of its solution, you might break through the block to creativity.

If you can manage to increase the flow of novel ideas, you can improve your own creativity. First, stop worrying about failure. Shut off your critical sense, release your inhibitions, and let your imagination play freely with images and ideas. The immediate goal is lots of ideas, no matter how implausible or silly they may seem. Evaluation may come later after you have generated all those ideas. In fact, too much evaluation, too early, can impede creativity.

Another way to increase the number of ideas is to get a group of people thinking about a problem in a noncritical atmosphere. In this process, known as brainstorming, people think up unusual novel solutions saying whatever comes to mind without fear to criticism or ridicule from the others. The advantage of thinking in a group is that people tend to take different perspectives, to start from different assumptions and to put forward ideas that stimulate others to think along new lines.

One more strategy for generation ideas is fractionation, in which an idea is broken down into its parts and each part is examined for new possibilities. Take the example of a simple brick. Why not crush it into tiny pellets and use it as a colorful groundcover in a garden? Why not warm it in the oven and put it in a bed to warm the sheets on a cold night? Such solutions represent the ability to put together things we know in a new and different way. Finding new solutions to old problems is just as creative as finding a solution to a problem that has never been solved before.

VII. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. Creativity enters the realm of beauty when we produce a solution that is entirely new to us.

2. Some psychologists believe that creative achievements are very romantic and mysterious.

3. People don’t have such capability as creativity.

4. The ready answers of daily life make us increase our creativity.

5. One way to regain a creative approach to problem solving is to learn to question our assumptions.

6. If you can manage to increase the flow of novel ideas, you can improve your own creativity.

7. Too much evaluation, too early can increase creativity.

8. The advantage to thinking in a group is that people tend to take different perspectives, to put forward ideas that stimulate others to think along old lines.

9. One more strategy for generating ideas is multiplication.

10. Finding new solutions to old problems is just as creative as finding a solution to a problem that has never been solved before.

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is creativity?

2. Do all of us have any degree of creativity?

3. What can stifle the creativity?

4. How is it possible to improve our ability to solve problems creatively?

5. What should we do to increase the flow of novel ideas during the process of problem solving?

6. What is fractionation?

7. What happens in the process, known as brainstorming?

8. What are the characteristics of a creative person?


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