Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Производство A formula - formulae (formulas), a crisis - crises, a criterion - criteria, an index - indices, a bacterium — bacteria, an axis — axes
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An ox — oxen. a child — children.

A man - men, a woman - women, a foot - feet, a tooth - teeth, a goose - geese, a mouse - mice

A calf — calves, a knife — knives, a shelf — shelves,

a wife — wives (но: roof — roofs).

Ряд существительных образует множественное число не по общим правилам:

а) изменяется корневая гласная:

б) добавляется окончание -en:

в) заимствуются формы единственного и множественного числа из латинского и греческого языков:

В английском языке есть существительные, которые имеют одну (общую) форму для единственного и множественного числа: a deer (олень) - deer (олени), a sheep (овца) - sheep(овцы), a fish рыба) - fish(рыбы), a swine (свинья) – swine (свиньи).

Некоторые существительные имеют только единственное число: advice, information, news. knowledge, furniture, luggage.

Некоторые - только множественное число, clothes, riches, damages, goods, looks, manners, thanks.


this is — these are

that is -— those are

there is — there are

it is — they are

Exercise 1.7. Decide which of the following nouns are countable (исчисляемые) or uncountable (неисчисляемые):

Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money, idea, family, darkness, knowledge, sea hour. tree, silver, meat, happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, friend, milk, student, pen, paper, clothes picture, air, goods.

Exercise 1.8. Read and translate the sentences. Decide which of the underlined nouns (существительных) are countable or uncountable and explain why:

1. We have read all the official papers. There were some sheets of paper on the table. 2.Two coffees, please. I like strong coffee. 3. Give me two glasses. Are they made of glass or plastics? 4. Many thousands of bricks are produced at the factory. Our school is built of brick.

Exercise 1.9. Write down the following nouns in plural.

Box, sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glass, bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge, month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city, man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, fish, woman, money, information.

Exercise 1.10. Write down the following nouns in plural:

A star, a mountain, a tree, a waiter, the queen, a man, a woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, a city, a boy, a goose, a watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, a sheep, a tooth, a child, an ox, a deer, a life, a tomato.

Exercise 1.11. Write down the following nouns in plural:

this man, that match, this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this knife

Exercise 1.12. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb (глагол):

1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very interesting. 3. There was a woman, a man, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Put this knife on that table. 6. Why don't you eat this potato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. A yellow leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11. I held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? — He is a Frenchman. 14. What is that child's name? 15. The cat has caught a mouse. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. This man works at our office.

Exercise 1.13. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb:

1. This is my stocking. 2. He has a new suit. 3. This metal is very hard. 4. That ship is a Russian one. 5. I heard her voice. 6. His dog does not like bread. 7. The plate was on the table. 8. This town is very large. 9. I was talking to her at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Is that girl your sister? 11. I shall give you my book. 12. This story will be a good one. 13. Is this a good match? 14. The boy put his book on the desk. 15. She took off her hat. 16. That house is new. 17. The pupil put his book into the bag. 18. Is this student coming with us, too? 19. The woman didn't say anything. 20. Does she speak English?

Притяжательный падеж существительных

Examples: The child's toys — The children's toys

The boy's books — The boys' books

Exercise 1.14. Use the Possessive Case of the Nouns:

Example: The poems of Lermontov. (Lermontov's poems).

1. The toy of their children. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The life of animals. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new tool of the workers. 8. The letter of Peter. 9. The car of my parents. 10 The room of my friend. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large.

Exercise 1.15. Translate into English.

1. Это семья моего друга. Отец моего друга — инженер. Мать моего друга — учитель. 2. Она взяла книги своего брата. 3. Дайте мне тетради ваших учеников. 4. Вы видели книгу нашего учителя? 5. Вчера дети моего брата ходили в кино. 6. Он показал мне письмо своей сестры. 7. Чья это сумка? — Это сумка Петра. 8. Чьи это словари? — Это словари студентов. 9. Принœесите игрушки детей.