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Производство Post-Reading Vocabulary Exercises
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Text-based exercises

Ex.6. Say which of the following issues are considered in the text. If they are, say to which paragraphs they belong.

- advantages of blockwork,

- advantages of engineering bricks,

- bricks for external and internal use,

- comparison of brick classes,

- functions of the external walls,

- kinds of brick suitable for facing,

- practical values of different bricks,

- production and use calcium silicate brick,

- production of concrete bricks,

- requirements for loadbearing walls,

- sizes of concrete bricks,

- the components of brick.

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Ex. 7. Arrange the sentences in the logical sequence of the text above.

a) Blockwork has cost advantages over brickwork.

b) By varying the quantity of cement and the nature of the aggregate, blocks with different strengths and levels of insulation can be formed.

c) Calcium silicate bricks are made from sand or crushed flint and lime.

d) Class F2 bricks may be saturated and undergo repeated cycles of freezing and thawing.

e) Class FO bricks are suitable for internal use only.

f) Concrete bricks are a mixture of dense aggregate with a cementitious binder.

g) Different proportions of cement can produce bricks of various strengths.

h) Concrete bricks when mixed with crushed stone aggregate are a substitute for natural stone.

i) Engineering bricksare dense, with high compressive strength and low rates of water absorption.

j) Hardening leads to a chemical reaction occurs to produce hydrated calcium silicate.

k) Calcium silicate bricks are resistant to frost attack and are unaffected by soluble sulfates.

l) Some bricks are totally resistant to frost attack while others are quite vulnerable.

m) Bricks for passive exposure are classified FO.

n) The majority of bricks are made from clay.

o) The most common use of facing bricks is for the outside walls of houses;

p) There are a number of requirements for an external loadbearing wall.

Ex.8. Divide the main part of the text into logically complete units. Find the key sentence in all the structurally meaningful passages of the text:

1.

2.

3.

4. …

Ex.9. Choose a sentence (two or three?) to elicit the main idea for each of the parts of the text.

Ex. 10. Text 1 has no conclusion. Suggest one or more sentences to conclude the description of the building material under consideration.

Ex. 11. Give summary of the text. For each of the parts give the key statement and support it with the chosen additional information. Remember that the summary should be accompanied by an introduction and conclusion.

Ex. 12. Insert into the sentences the right word or word group from the box.

regular in shape; cost advantages; an external loadbearing wall; internal use; compressive strength; a variety of additives; cementitious binder; the suspended floors and roof; facing bricks; totally resistant; hardening chambers; facing bricks; cement and aggregate; moderate exposure;

1. To support _______ is one of the basic functions of the external wall of the house.

2. The basic requirements for _______ are strength and stability, weather protection, good thermal insulation, fire protection and durability.

3. By using special manufacturing techniques and adding _______ , bricks of various colours and strengths can be produced.

4. ________ of different colours and strengths are used where the face will be left exposed.

5. Engineering bricksare dense bricks with high _______ and low rates of water absorption.

6. Some bricks are _______ to frost attack while others are quite vulnerable.

7. Bricks suitable for _______ are classified F1.

8. Class FO bricks are generally intended for _______ only.

9. The materials are mechanically pressed into shape and put in _______ into which steam is injected.

10. The bricks are very _______ and can easily be recognised by their pale colours.

11. Concrete bricks are made from dense aggregate with a ________ .

12. Coloured _______ are manufactured by blending different aggregates or by adding special pigments.

13. Blockwork has become very popular because of its ________ over brickwork.

14. Most blocks are made from _______ and have different strengths and levels of insulation.

Ex. 13. Complete the sentences

1. In order to fulfil its functions the external loadbearing wall has such requirements as ….

2. The majority of bricks are made from clay using ….

3. Common bricks are suitable for general building work where ….

4. Facing bricks come in a wide range of finishes, colours and strengths and are used ….

5. Engineering bricksare dense bricks with high compressive strength and low rates of water absorption.

6. Engineering bricksmay be used ….

7. The bricks that … are classified F2.

8. Class F2 bricks are suitable for use in ….

9. Class F1 bricks are normally durable in the outer face of a building as long as ….

10. Calcium silicate bricks are made from ….

11. During hardening a chemical reaction occurs to ….

12. Calcium silicate bricks are generally ….

13. Concrete bricks are made ….

14. Coloured facing bricks are manufactured by ….

15. Concrete bricks are popular a substitute for natural stone, particularly when ….

16. Most concrete blocks are equivalent in size to ….

17. By varying the quantity of cement and the nature of the aggregate blocks with ….

Ex. 14. Complete the following sentences using English equivalents in­stead of the Russian words and word-combinations.

1. The external wall of a house is to (поддерживать вес половых и потолочных перекрытий).

2. In order to satisfactorily fulfil these functions (предъявляется ряд требований) for an external loadbearing wall.

3. The requirements include: strength and stability, weather protection, (хорошая теплоизоляция, пожарная безопасность и долговечность).

4. Different clays have different characteristics and (при использовании специальных методов производства и внесении разнообразных добавок), bricks of various colours and strengths can be produced.

5. Bricks can be described as (обычный, облицовочный и технический).

6. Сommon bricks are suitable where the face of the brick will be (покрыта строительным раствором, штукатуркой или какой-то другой отделкой).

7. facing bricks are used for the outside walls of houses where (лицевая сторона будет подвергаться внешнему воздействию).

8. Some engineering bricksare likely to be found in civil engineering structures such as (несущие стены и мосты).

9. Bricks can also be classified by (морозостойкость).

10. Some bricks are totally resistant to frost attack while others are (уязвимыe).

11. According to the new European Standard bricks suitable for (суровое воздействие окружающей среды) are classified F2.

12. Class F2 bricks are therefore suitable for use where they may be saturated and have to (подвергаться многократному промерзанию и оттаиванию).

13. With class F1 bricks appropriate measures have been taken in the design of the wall (чтобы предотвратить влагопоглощение).

14. Calcium Silicate bricks are made from (песка или каменной крошки) and lime together with coloured pigments.

15. The materials are put in hardening chambers into which (подавать пар под давлением).

16. The bricks are generally resistant to frost attack and (фактически не вступают в реакцию с растворимыми сульфатами).

17. Coloured facing bricks are manufactured (при смешивании различного заполнителя) or by adding special pigments.

18. Concrete bricks are becoming popular, particularly when mixed with crushed stone aggregate (в качестве замены натуральному камню).

19. Blockwork has become very popular because of its (ценовое преимущество) over brickwork.

20. Вlocks with different strengths and levels of insulation can be formed by (меняя количество цемента и характер заполнителя).

Ex. 15. Translate the sentences into English.

1. К несущей стене предъявляется ряд требований: прочность и устойчивость, защита от погодных воздействий, хорошая теплоизоляция, пожарная безопасность и долговечность.

2. Сегодня самыми обычными для возведения стен являются кладки из кирпича и блоков.

3. Виды кирпича бывают представлены какобычные, облицовочные и технические.

4. Облицовочный кирпич используется для внешних стен зданий, где лицевая сторона подвергается воздействию внешней среды.

5. Некоторые кирпичи являются абсолютно непромерзаемыми, в то время как другие весьма уязвимы.

6. Кирпичи, которые можно подвергать умеренному охлаждению, классифицируются как F1.

7. Кирпичи класса F1 обычно долговечны с внешней стороны здания, если были приняты соответствующие меры по предотвращению влагопоглощение.

8. Силикатные кирпичи делают и песка или каменной крошки и извести с добавлением цветных красителœей.

9. Во время закаливания происходит химическая реакция, дающая в результате гидросиликат кальция.

10. Большинство бетонных блоков изготавливается при смешивании и уплотнении заполнителя с цементным связующим компонентом под высоким давлением.

11. Меняя пропорции содержания бетона, можно производить блоки различной прочности.

12. Бетонные блоки становятся всœе популярнее, особенно в качестве замены натуральному камню, когда они заполнителœем является каменная крошка.

13. Кладка из бетонных блоков стала очень популярной благодаря ценовому преимуществу по сравнению с кирпичной кладкой.

14. С различным содержанием цемента и заполнителя можно получить блоки различной прочности и степени изоляции.

For more specific information concerning building brick buildings read text 2 ‘Masonry’ and get ready to answer the questions following the text and the list of vocabulary.