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Производство Pre-Reading Vocabulary Exercises
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Unit 3. FOUNDATION

He who has not first laid his foundations may be able with great ability to lay them afterwards, but they will be laid with trouble to the architect and danger to the building.

Niccolo Machiavelli

The house does not rest upon the ground, but upon a woman.

Mexican proverb

Vocabulary to memorise:

1. foundation [faun'dei∫ən]- фундамент, основание

2. footing ['futiɳ] - фундамент; подошва (фундамента); основание, опора

3. shallow ['∫æləu] foundation - фундамент мелкого заложения

4. deep foundation - фундамент глубокого заложения

5. drilled pier [piə] foundation – фундамент на буронабивных сваях

6. slab-on-grade foundation – монолитная плита-фундамент по грунту

7. footing [‘futɪŋ] - основание, фундамент; опора, основа,

8. spread [spred] footing - фундамент на естественном основании

9. stability [stə’bɪlətɪ] – устойчивость; состояние устойчивого равновесия; стойкость, прочность

10. load - нагрузка; груз || грузить; загружать

11. dead load ['ded 'ləud] - мёртвый груз; собственный вес, вес конструкции;

12. imposed [im'pəuzd] (live) load - временная нагрузка; приложенная нагрузка

13. concrete [‘kɔŋkri:t] - бетон

14. pile - свая, столб

15. pier [‘pɪə] - стойка; столб; пилон; вертикальная опора

16. reinforced [,rɪɪn’fɔ:st] concrete – армированный бетон; желœезобетон

17. pre-tensioned [prɪ‘tenʃnd] concrete – предварительно напряженный желœезобетон

18. settle - осœедать; осаждать(ся);

19. settlement [‘setlmənt] - осадка, осœедание (напр., фундамента͵ грунта)

20. total [‘təutəl] settlement – общая осадка

21. differential [,dɪfə‘renʃəl] settlement – неравномерная осадка

22. bearing capacity [‘bɛərɪŋ kə‘pæsɪtɪ] - несущая способность; подъемная сила

23. support [sə‘pɔ:t] - подставка, опора; опорная стойка

24. fail - ломаться, разрушаться; повреждаться

25. consideration [kən,sɪdə‘reɪʃn] - соображение; мнение, учитываемый фактор

26. scour [‘skauə] - размыв; водная эрозия, промоина; эрозийное действие воды

27. frost heave [‘hi:v] - пучение (грунта) при замерзании; морозное пучение

28. flowing water - проточная вода

29. remove [rɪ‘mu:v] - удалять, устранять

30. ice lens - ледяная линза

31. moisture [‘mɔɪstʃə] - влажность, влага

32. cause [‘kɔ:z] - причина, основание || быть причиной, вызывать

33. expansive [ɪk‘spænsɪv] - способный расширяться; расширительный

34. clay - глина

35. swell - разбухание; вспучивание || разбухать; вспучиваться; вздуваться

36. shrink - давать усадку; усыхать; сжиматься

37. distort [dis‘tɔ:t] - искажать; искривлять; деформировать

38. crack - трещина; разрыв || растрескиваться; разрываться; раскалываться

39. semi-arid [,semɪ‘ærɪd] - засушливый; полупустынный;

40. permafrost [‘pɜ:məfrɔst] - вечная мерзлота

41. prevent [prɪ‘vent] - предотвращать; предохранять; препятствовать

42. melt - плавить, плавиться; таять

Ex. 1. Study the verbs which you can find in the text and point out the irregular verbs. Are you sure you know their forms in Past Simple ( Past Indefinite) and Past Participle ?

Embed, extend, consist (of), break (into), transfer, drill, settle, freeze, penetrate, include, swell, shrink, vary, distort, occur, crack, follow, build, try, prevent, melt, found

Ex.2. Make nouns out of the adjectives using the proper suffixes (-th, -ness, -ity). Make the necessary changes.

Strong, stable, deep, weak, wet, dry, wide, long

Ex.3. A) Divide the adjective into simple and complex (consisting of a root and suffix).

Shallow, permanent, different, deep, common, differential, typical, expansive, weak, total, seasonal special, strong, simple, thermal, exact, wet

B) In complex adjectives identify the base form (from which the adjective is derived).

Ex. 4. Analyse the compound words. Find the root(s), prefix(es), suffix(es):

bedrock, slab-on-grade, pre-tensioned, reinforced, semi-arid, permafrost.

Ex. 5. The following words can function as nouns, verbs or adjectives (conversion). Consult the dictionary to find this information (A) and then translate the sentences (B):

A) surface, load, support, design, flow, form, cause, swell, crack, effect, soil.

B) Changes in soil moisture can cause expansive clay to swell and shrink. This swelling can vary across the footing. The variation in swell can cause the soil to distort, cracking the structure over it. The primary design concerns are settlement and bearing capacity. Other design considerations include scour and frost heave. Generally, the structure is designed in a way that tries to prevent the permafrost from melting.

Ex. 6. Match the words contrary in meaning:

A B
shallow wet
stability changeable
hot cold (frosty)
permanent deep
later earlier
dry above
upper instability
common lower
different secondary
primary similar
to swell to shrink
strong unusual
below weak

Ex. 7. Translate the following word combinations:

permanent stability, to transfer loads to the ground, shallow foundation, deep foundation, to be embedded into soil, spread footing, strips/pads of concrete, below the frost line, to transfer the weight, slab-on-grade foundation, at the surface, an upper weak layer of soil, earth stabilized column, to penetrate bedrock, primary design concerns, total/differential settlement, to cause problems, to loaded beyond bearing capacity, detached house, dead/imposed load, to carry load, exact imposed load, design considerations, frost heave, flowing water, supporting soil, to form ice lenses, soil moisture, expansive clay, to vary across the footing, to remove moisture, to distort soil, semi-arid climate, in areas of permafrost, to prevent from melting.

Read text 1 ‘FOUNDATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION’. In the text point out the introductory part, the main part and the conclusion.