Производство PART III просмотров - 71
(3, 4 части)
для студентов финансово-экономического факультета
Учебное пособие по дисциплине "Английский язык" для финансово-экономического факультета͵ Ч.3-4. – М.: МФЮА, 2006. – с.
Рекомендовано к использованию в учебном процессе на заседании кафедры "Иностранных языков" МФЮА (протокол № __ от "__" _ 2005 ᴦ.)
Типография Московской финансово-юридической академии
Тираж _______ экз.
PART III. 4
TEXT 1.TYPES AND FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION.. 4
TEXT 2. RECRUITMENT. 8
TEXT 3. JOB SPECIFICATION.. 14
TEXT 4. PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATION.. 17
TEXT 5. BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS. 20
TEXT 6. DISMISSAL PROCEDURE.. 25
TEXT 7. MEETINGS. 29
TEXT 8. TYPES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS. 36
TEXT 9. ADVERTISING.. 41
TEXT 10. ADVERTISING AS A CAREER IN THE USA.. 47
TEXT 11. CONSUMER RIGHTS. 51
TEXT 12. HISTORY OF ACCOUNTING.. 56
TEXT 13. CAREERS IN FINANCE.. 64
TEXT 14. MARKETIG.. 69
TEXT 15. MANAGEMENT. 74
TEXT 16. FRANCHISING.. 79
PART IV.. 88
TEXT 1. HISTORY OF ECONOMICS. 88
TEXT 2. THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM... 92
TEXT 3. MONEY.. 96
TEXT 4. THE FUNCTIONS OF MONEY.. 102
TEXT 5. THE ROLE OF BANKS IN THEORY.. 107
TEXT 6. CENTRAL BANK.. 111
TEXT 7. FINANCE.. 115
TEXT 8. GR. BRITAIN ECONOMY. HOW IT ALL STARTED.. 119
TEXT 9. MADE IN BRITAIN.. 124
TEXT 10. THE CITY OF LONDON: ITS PAST AND PRESENT. 128
TEXT 11. AMERICAN ECONOMY.. 132
TEXT 12. MADE IN THE USA: FROM COFFEE TO WHEELS FOR ALL MANKIND.. 137
TEXT 13. MACRO ENVIRONMENT. 141
TEXT 14. THE SMALL BUSINESS. 145
TEXT 15. ADVENTAGES AND DISADVENTAGES OF RUNNING A SMALL FIRM... 153
TEXT 16. CORPORATE ALLIANCES AND ACQUISITIONS. 160
РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА.. 166
TEXT 1.TYPES AND FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION
A business organization is frequently referred to as a business entity. A business entity is any business organization that exists as an economic unit. Business entities can be grouped according to the type of business activity they perform.
Service companies perform services for a fee. This group includes companies such as accounting firms, law firms, repair shops, and many others.
Merchandising companies purchase goods that are ready for sale and sell them to customers. They include such companies as auto dealer ships, clothing stores, and supermarkets.
Manufacturing companies buy materials, convert them into products, and then sell the products to the companies or to the final customer. Examples are steel miles, auto manufacturers, and so on.
The business entity concept applies to all forms of businesses -single proprietorship, a partnership, and a corporation.
A single (sole) proprietorship is business owned by an individual and often managed by that same individual. Single proprietors include physicians, lawyers, electricians, and other people who are 'in business for themselves'. In a single proprietorship, the owner is responsible for all debts of the business. Operating as a proprietorship is the easiest way to get started in a business activity. Other than the possibility of needing a local license, there are not any prerequisites to beginning operations.
A partnership is a business owned by two or more persons associated as partners. Partnerships are created by an agreement. Included in the agreement are such terms as the initial investment of each partner, the duties of each partner, the means of dividing profits or losses between the partners each year, and the settlement to be made upon the death or withdrawal of a partner. Accountants, attorneys, and other professionals frequently operate their firms as partnerships.
A corporation is a business owned by a few persons or by thousands of persons. The owners of the corporation are called shareholders or stockholders. They buy shares of stock. If the corporation fails, the owners lose only the amount they paid for their stock. The personal assets of the owner are protected from the creditors of the corporation. The stockholders do not directly manage the corporation; they elect a board of directors to represent their interests. The board of directors select the president and vice president, who manage the corporation for the stockholders.
WHY ARE COMPANIES REFERRED TO AS LTD., INC., GMBH, OR S.A.?
An individual, like Henry Ford, might want to begin a small enterprise and personally retain total responsibility and liability, but once it starts to grow, a partnership or a "company"—such as Ford Motor Company;—would need to be formed. The key factor in owning any company is the guarantee called limited liability: the owners of a company never have to pay more than they have invested in the company. Their liabilities are limited. When a company goes bankrupt, the owners can never be required to pay its unpaid bills.
The worst that can happen to investors in a limited liability company is losing their initial investment if the company fails. By limiting the downside risk for shareholders, companies are able to attract equity investors and raise large amounts of funds called equity capital through sales of shares rather than by borrowing money at potentially high interest rates. The names of companies around the world reflect this guarantee of limited liability. The abbreviations "GmbH" in Germany, "Inc." in the United States, or "Ltd." in most other English-speaking countries indicate that the firm is a limited liability company and investors have nothing more to lose than the money invested in their shares. The "S.A." in French-and Spanish-speaking countries also refers to limited liability by defining shareholders as "anonymous." Since the identity of shareholders can be kept secret, the creditors of a bankrupt company have no right to pursue them for the company's unpaid debts.
Many countries make a clear distinction between public and private companies, with separate designations, such as AG and GmbH in Germany, or Plc and Ltd. in Britain. Generally, "public" companies are those large enough to have their shares traded on stock exchanges, while smaller unquoted companies are said to be "private," even though their shares can be held by the public at large. In some countries, a large company is said to be privately owned if its shares are not available to the general public. In the United States, where little distinction is made between public and private companies, most companies simply bear the title "Incorporated."
Exercise 1. Define:
Part II. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary Part I. Introduction General Notes on Style and Stylistics 9 Expressive Means (EM) and Stylistic Devices (SD) 25 General Notes on Functional Styles of Language 32 Varieties of Language 35 Brief Outline of the Development of the English Literary (Standard) language 41 Meaning from a Stylistic Point of View 57General Considerations 70 Neutral, Common Literary and Common Colloquial Vocabulary 72 Special Literary... [читать подробенее]
Москва 2006 По дисциплине Учебное пособие «Английский язык» (3, 4 части) для студентов финансово-экономического факультета Евсеева А.Ю. Учебное пособие по дисциплине "Английский язык" для финансово-экономического факультета, Ч.3-4. – М.: МФЮА, 2006. – с. ... [читать подробенее]
(Lessons 7-9) Задание 1. Прослушайте слова и запишите номера слов, в которых вы услышите a) звук [:] 1. fir 2. fort 3. set 4. burn 5. note 6. farm 7. serve b) звук [ai] 1. hair 2. pure 3. tired 4. spare 5. wire 6. fear 7. fire с) звук [au] 1. flour 2. here 3. poor 4. sour 5. fire 6. pine 7.town d) звук [ju] 1. cure 2. poor 3. tool 4. more 5.... [читать подробенее]
(Lessons 7-9) Задание 1. Прослушайте слова и запишите номера слов, в которых вы услышите a) звук [:]; b) звук [ai]; с) звук [au]; d) звук [ju]. Задание 2. Прослушайте предложения и запишите номера предложений, которые имеют вопросительную структуру. Задание 3. Прослушайте... [читать подробенее]
Part II Part I Key 1. a) [a:] 1, 5, 7 b) [:] 3, 4, 5, 6 c) [æ] 1, 4, 7 d) [ei] 3, 7 2. 2, 3, 5, 7 3. 1, 3, 5 4. 2, 3, 5, 6 5. 2, 4 6. 2, 4 7. 2, 4 8. 1) Yes, she is. 3) Yes, there is. 6) Yes, they were. 7) Yes, he was. 9. 1. Он не инженер, он – научный работник. 2. Они были в кино два дня назад. 3.... [читать подробенее]
Complex gerund construction pron (pos. c.) + GERUND noun (pos. c., gen. c.) He insisted on my being examined by the doctor. I know of Nick's father delivering lectures on chemistry. English-Russian Glossary Antiques / Антиквариат ancient старинный object of art предмет century век искусства picture картина manuscript манускрипт painting ... [читать подробенее]
9. In 1871 Mendeleyev found that by changing seventeen elements from the positions indicated by the atomic weights which had been accepted for them into new positions their properties could be better correlated with the properties of other elements. He pointed out that this change indicated the existence of small errors in the previously accepted atomic weights of several of the elements, and large errors for several others, for which the atomic weight had been assumed to be correct.... [читать подробенее]
TYPES OF FOUNDATION Short-bored piled foundations are used 1)_____ small houses and lightweight framed buildings constructed 2) _____ soils that expand and contract 3) _____ changes in the moisture content. These soil types include clay and black cotton. The type of foundation shown in Figure 8.8 can be constructed quite quickly and avoid the need to dig deep trenches. Short-bored piles are more effective and cheaper than conventional foundations if the soil responds easily to the... [читать подробенее]
ROMAN ARCITECTURE Part II In Roman architecture there were three types of 1) _____: the domus; the insula, and the villa. The domus, or town house, consisted of 2) _____ of rooms grouped around a central hall, or atrium, to which were often added further suites at the rear, grouped around a 3) _____ court, or peristyle. In Rome the chief examples of domus are the house of Vestals in the Forum in Rome and that of Livia on the Palatine Hill. Great blocks of flats or 4) _____ were... [читать подробенее]
Concrete tile is now a roofing material. Shingles, simulated wood shakes, lighter-weight tiles and concrete panels are being manufactured 1) _____ a variety of fiber-reinforced cement products. Some are coated 2) _____ plastics, enamels, or thin metals, and some contain recycled material. Although the products themselves are not yet recyclable, they are a good choice 3) _____ durability and resource efficiency. The advantages of concrete roofing vary from product 4) _____ product, but... [читать подробенее]