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Менеджмент Accounting
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COMMERCIAL DRAFTS

A commercial draftis a written order requiring a customer (the drawee) to pay a specified sum of money to a supplier (the drawer) for goods or services. It is often used when the supplier is insure about the customer’s credit standing.

In this case, the draft is similar to an ordinary check with one exception: the draft is filled out by the seller and not the buyer. A sight draftis a commercial draft that is payable on demandwhenever the drawer wishes to collect. A time draftis a commercial draft on which a payment date is specified. Like promissory notes, drafts are negotiable instruments that can be discount­ed or used as collateral for a loan (3300).

  1. GENERAL DEFINITION OF ACCOUNTING

Today, it is impossible to manage a business operation without accurate and timely accounting information. Managers and em­ployees, lenders, suppliers, stockholders, and government agen­cies all rely on the information contained in two financial state­ments. These two reports — the balance sheet and the income statement — are summaries of a firm’s activities during a specific time period. They represent the results of perhaps tens of thou­sands of transactions that have occurred during the accounting period.

Accounting is the process of systematically collecting, an­alyzing, and reporting financial information.The basic prod­uct that an accounting firm sells is information needed for the cli­ents.

Many people confuse accounting with bookkeeping. Book­keeping is a necessary part of accounting. Bookkeepers are re­sponsible for recording (or keeping) the financial data that the ac­counting system processes.

The primary users of accounting information are managers. The firm’s accounting system provides the information dealing with revenues, costs, accounts receivable, amounts borrowed and owed profits, return on investment, and the like. This infor­mation can be compiled for the entire firm; for each product; for each sales territory, store, or individual salesperson; for each divi­sion or department; and generally in any way that will help those who manage the organization. Accounting information helps managers plan and set goals, organize, motivate, and control. Lenders and suppliers need this accounting information to evaluate credit risks. Stockholders and potential investors need the information to evaluate soundness of investments, and government agencies need it to confirm tax liabilities, confirm payroll deductions, and approve new issues of stocks and bonds. The firm’s accounting system must be able to provide all this information, in the required form.


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