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Менеджмент COMMUNICATIONS AT WORK
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Read and translate the text.

Perhaps one of the most important changes in the workplace in this century has been the development of communications. Communications have changed the very nature of work: the places we work, the way we work, and what we do. In my talk I would like to focus on the way that office communications have changed through time, and how workers have adapted to changes in technology.

Over one hundred years ago, all documents were copied out by hand and office workers had to have good handwriting in order to get a job. In the 1870's, however,

typewriters were introduced to the workplace, and companies started to employ secretaries on the basis of their shorthand and typing skills.

Telecommunications became more efficient and widespread after the Second World War, and more companies needed to have their own telephonists to direct calls within the offices. It also became important for the secretary to use the telephone efficiently, taking messages and passing on information.

Meanwhile, computers were developing, although their application for office communications did not really start until the micro-chip was invented. At the beginning of the computer revolution, however, few people in the workplace were able to use computers. In those days you had to know a lot of computer language and keyboard commands, as the mouse did not exist then and programs were not particularly user-friendly.

The rate of change since the 1970's, however, has been very fast. There are now few people in the workplace without simple word-processing skills. And work patterns have changed as a result of growing computer technology. In the United States, in particular, many people have chosen to work from home, since all they need is a modem to link themselves up to their companies. An increasing number of European workers are starting to work from home as well.

Communications are going to continue to change the way that people work. However, they probably won’t reduce the length of the working week. Video­conferencing will reduce the need for travel, but if a company in London wants to hold a meeting with a company in Tokyo, for example, time differences mean that some people will have to work outside normal hours. Mobile phones now mean that many companies can contact their employees 24 hours a day, and so workers are never totally "out of the office". Stress-related illnesses are bound to increase, and in fact some workers have already won large sums of money from their companies as compensation for illnesses caused by overwork.

Fill in the blanks with the following words:

messages, adapted, computers, exist, handwriting, century, length, telephone, link, communications, development, passing, programmes, employees.

1. One of the most important changes in the workplace in this... has been the... of communications.

2. I'd like to focus on the way that office ... have changed through time, and how workers have... to changes in technology.

3. Office workers had to have good ... in order to get a job.

4. (t also became important for the secretary to use the ... efficiently, taking ... and ... on information.

5. At the beginning of the computer revolution, few people in the workplace were able to use ....

6. The mouse did not... then and ... were not particularly user-friendly.

7. All they need is a modem to ... themselves up to their companies.

8. They probably won't reduce the ... of the working week.

9. Mobile phones now mean that many companies can contact their ... 24 hours a day.

Find synonyms:

point out, efficient, usual, length, start, adapt, centennium, focus on, important, message, grow, instruction, want, company, accommodate, considerable, increase, information, century, need, firm, hire, active, employ, begin, command, duration, normal.

Find antonyms:

lose, dismiss, simple, slow, inefficient, finish, bad, employee, difference, few, win, reduce, outside, employ, employer, many, inside, complicated, good, fast, resemblance, efficient, start, increase.

Translate from Russian into English:

сама сущность работы, сосредоточить внимание на, в течение времени, переписывать от руки, хороший почерк; навыки стенографии и печатания, широко распространенный, использовать эффективно телœефон, передавать информацию, применение в офисной коммуникации, в начале компьютерной революции, размах изменений, условия работы, в частности, модем для связи с компанией, продолжительность рабочей недели, провести собрание.

Give the four forms of the following verbs:

to do, to have, to become, to take, to know, to grow, to choose, to go, to held, to mean, to win, to write.

Make up sentences using the following words:

1. work, the very, communications, nature, changed, of, have.

2. workplace, the 1870's, were, the, typewriters, introduced, in, to.

3. became, and, the. War, more, telecommunications, efficient, World, after, widespread. Second.

4. commands, language, a lot of, to know, days, and, keyboard, computer, those, had, in, you.

5. without, skills, the workplace, are, in, word-processing, few, there, simple, people, now.

6. technology, as, patterns, growing, have, work, a result of, changed, computer.

7. increasing, home, workers, to work, an, from, European, number of stating, are.

8. people, communications, me way, to continue, are, work, that, to change, going.

Fill in prepositions:

1.... one hundred years ago, all documents were copied...... hand.

2. Companies started to employ secretaries... the basis of their shorthand and typing skills.

3. More companies needed to have their own telephonists to direct calls ... the offices.

4. Computer-application... office communications did not really start until the micro-chip was invented.

5.... the beginning of the computer revolution, few people were able to use computers.

6. The rate of change ... the 1970's has been very fast.

7. Many people have chosen to work... home.

8. Video-conferencing will reduce the need... travel.


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