Менеджмент Exercise 1 просмотров - 104
Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the function of the ing-forms.
The ing-form as a subject.
1. Avoiding difficulties is not my method.
2. It was no good chasing the insider trader.
3. It’s no use influencing the Board before the shareholders’ meeting.
The ing-form as part of a predicate (to form continuous tenses).
1. The government gives a subsidy to the industry that is suffering from foreign competition.
2. The terms of payment depend on the countries between which the trade is taking place.
The ing-form as an attribute.
1. If the call you receive is a direct incoming call you state the name of your company.
2. They won a convincing margin.
3. The terms of delivery depend on the kinds of goods being traded.
4. A nation must at all times combine devaluation with other effective measures to balance its economy, resulting in a reasonable level of employment and low rate of inflation.
5. The WTO has more than 130 members, accountingfor 90% of world trade.
6. During 1982, the dollar rose against other major currencies to its highest level since the beginning of floating exchange rates in 1973.
The ing-form as an object.
1. The statistics used in determining a deficit or an excess are non-perfect.
2. They postponed giving a definite answer.
The ing-form used as a part of Complex Object.
1. I saw him speaking to the manager.
2. I left him making printouts.
3. If she catches you reading the quarterly breakdown of overheads, she’ll be furious.
The ing-form used as an adverbial modifier of time.
1. While workingso hard he still receives all profits.
2. On arriving at the office he realized that the staff were upset.
The ing-form used as an adverbial modifier of cause.
1. Considering the complexity of the problem, the decision was reached at a rather early date.
2. Having been persuadedby the Sales Manager, Hector Grant opened up a new export Market in Abraca.
3. Being invited to Hector Grant John Martin, Sales Manager, told him about the chances of getting a large order in Abraca.
4. Having failed twice I was not at subject.
The ing-form used as an adverbial modifier of manner or attending circumstances.
1. McEnroe can make an extra profit on this deal, takinga small commission on the sale of the shoes.
2. We wasted a whole afternoon trying to detail actual expenditure against budget and the amount spent on travelling and entertainment.
The ing-form used as an adverbial participle phrase to express time.
1. Having bought a corporate bond, you have bought a portion of a large loan, and your rights are those of a lender.
2. Having increasedsales by almost forty per cent John Martin has had a very successful year.
2. When do we use the Past Participle?
Past Participle has no tense forms, its action either precedes the action of the main verb or is simultaneous to it.
1. Complete the sentences with the verb in the correct form: Present Simple, Future Simple Tenses. Watch tadpoles grow 16) If you look in a pond, you ..... (see) in a shallow water great lumps of jelly. That ..... (be) frog's spawn. Mother frog ..... (lay) up to 800 eggs. Don't think she ..... ( take) care of them. She ...... ( leave) them, floating on the surface to look after themselves as soon as the eggs are laid. Then in a few days if you look at an egg you ..... ( notice) a black spot,... [читать подробенее]
1. Put in a\an or the where necessary. ..…Britain, in which ... fifty million people live and work, is,.. land of... great variety. There are many large cities, but they are surrounded with ... quiet countryside. There are ... plains in ... east, hills in... center and south-west, and ... mountains in ... north. Some parts of ... country are almost without ... trees while others have ... great forests, ... south is ... land of... rivers, but Scotland is... land of ... lakes. One of ...... [читать подробенее]
1. Complete the sentences with the verb in the correct form: Present Simple, Present Perfect, Past Simple Tense. INTERFERON Virus diseases …..( plague) mankind for thousands of years, but, until recently, no medical treatment for them …..( be) available. Although the use of vaccines almost …..(eliminate) several major viral diseases, such as polio and smallpox, medical research …..( provide) no means for treating virus diseases already established in the body. No drugs …..( be)... [читать подробенее]
Exercise 9. Match the adjectives from the line with the definitions. Exercise 7. Name the traits of character suggested by the following. Say which, in your opinion, are good, and which are bad, and why. A person: 1. takes little interest in his or her appearance; 2. shows great interest in one's appearance; 3. is always well-dressed; 4. wears loud clothes; 5. has neatly-parted hair and clean shoes; 6. works carefully and accurately; 7. never leaves a job half-done; 8. works hard; 9.... [читать подробенее]
C. Match the word with its definition. (mist and fog) B. Match the word with its definition. (warm, hot weather) Exercise 7. A. Find the definitions for the underlined words. (cold weather) In Scandinavia, the chilly days of autumn soon change to the cold days of winter. The first frosts arrive and the roads become icy. Rain becomes sleet and then snow, at first turning to slush in the streets, but soon settling, with severe blizzards and snowdrifts in the far north. Freezing... [читать подробенее]
C. about the Picture Gallery at Christ Church B. about the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments A. about the Museum of the History of Science Exercise 6. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why. 1. The Museum houses an unrivalled collection of paintings. 2. The Museum is well known by virtue of the collection and its building. 3. The Museum is not a department of the University of Oxford. 4. The objects of the Museum are available for study... [читать подробенее]
Exercise 6. Form comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives. 1. large 2. small 3. big 4. hot 5. cold 6. long 1. ocean A. piece of land completely surrounded by water 2. island B. the most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative centre 3. area C. the great mass of salt water that covers most of the Earth's surface 4. city D. a very small settlement in the countryside 5. town E. a particular part... [читать подробенее]
Hola Ferrari Evian IBM AGFA Philips Carlsberg IKEA BBC 1 Olympic Pravda Aker AS Istambul Nokia Denmark Norway France Holland Spain Finland USA Britain Turkey Russia Germany Greece Italy Sweden furniture retailer newspaper computer company beer electronics company industrial company mineral water seaport airline car manufacturer photographic company mobile phone company weekly magazine television... [читать подробенее]
Exercise 5. Who of the people from the list said or meant the following. B. makes it worse. A. improves our life Exercise 2. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why. 1. People never wanted to communicate from afar. 2. People have used birds to get a message from one point to another. 3. Francis Bacon predicted the telephone in his book New Utopia. 4. A real telephone could be invented only at the electrical age. 5. The telephone was invented... [читать подробенее]
Exercise 5. Discussion Exercise 3. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why. Exercise 2. Answer the following questions. Exercise 1. Write down all the nationalities mentioned in the UNIT. Write down one thing about each nationality that you can remember. EXERCISES1. Which nationalities are the most and least punctual? 2. Why did the British think that everyone understood their customs? 3. Which nationalities do not like to eat and do business at... [читать подробенее]