Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Менеджмент F. Chose the correct variant.
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1. I heard the partners had signed / signa mutually advantageous contract.

2. John noticed Sally be / wasvery pale and excited.

3. Kevin saw a new visitor enclose / enclosed a statement with the letter.

4. I hear Peter reported/ reporton the expenditure against budget twice last month but the Board still want him to do it again.

5. I felt something crawl / crawled on my back.

6. We feel this takeover bid threatens / threatenthe future of our firm.

7. I see someone got / get away from prison this morning.It’s in today’s news.

2. Is the infinitive or the ing-form used after the verbs of perception?

a. The bare infinitive generally refers to the complete action:

I watched the secretary type a letter on a paper with a printed letterhead.

(i.e. from start to finish)

b. The -ing form generally refers to an action in progress:

I watched the secretary typing a letter on a paper with a printed letterhead. (i.e. I saw part of the action)

c. We may use hear, observe, perceive, see in the passive + -ing or a to-infinitive:

She was seen executingthe order.

She was seen to execute the order.

d. We may also use Past Participle as a part of Complex object:

The freight forwarders watched the crates loaded.

1.8.2 Join these pairs of sentences, deciding when to use a bare infinitive or ing.

Model 1:Mr. Roberts was examining the furniture. Mr. Thorn saw him.

– Mr. Thorn saw him examining the furniture.

1. She was informing the beneficiaries. I heard her.

I heard _________________________________________________ .

2. The beneficiaries were instructing the bank manager. They were seen.

The beneficiaries were seen ________________________________ .

3. Mr. Roberts was reading the piece of paper stuck on the windscreen. Mr. Thorn saw it.

Mr. Thorn saw ____________________________________________.

4. A man in the transport café was asking what Andersons’ driver was carrying. The barman heard that.

The barman heard ____________________________________.

5. The newcomer was looking through the catalogues very thoughtfully.

Elizabeth Corby noticed that.

Elizabeth noticed _________________________________________.

6. The operators were showing the new machines in operation. The visitors of the exhibition watched it.

The visitors of the exhibition watched _______________________

7. Christopher Thorn was making his comments about the confidential file. Because of the noise in the room nobody heard that.

Nobody heard ____________________________________________.

Model 2:Mr. Roberts examined the furniture. Mr. Thorn saw him.

– Mr. Thorn saw him examine the furniture.

1. The typist said the shipping documents were enclosed. She was heard.

The typist was heard _______________________________________.

2 They discussed the invoice in question. I listened to them.

I listened ______________________________________________ .

3. One of the clerks told a lie. Everybody heard it.

Everybody heard __________________________________________.

4 Fenella made a lot of spelling mistakes in the letters. J.Martin noticed it.

John Martin noticed ________________________________________.

5. The customs officer examined the goods. We saw it.

We saw ________________________________________________.

Model 3:The furniture was examined. Mr. Thorn watched him.

– Mr. Thorn watched the furniture examined.

1. The goods were loaded on the steamer. The ship owner saw it.

The ship owner saw the goods __________________ .

2. The workers packed the crates. I saw it.

I saw the crates ______________ .

3. The captain signed the Bill of Lading. The seller watched it.

The seller watched the Bill of Lading _____________ .

Model 3:Mr. Grant wanted John to comment on the amount spent.

- Mr. Grant asked John to comment on it.

- Mr. Grant asked for the commentary.

- Mr. Grant asked for the commentary to be made.

1. The exporters wanted the beneficiary to draw the irrevocable letter of credit.

2. The seller required the buyer to deliver the gears on FOB terms.

3. I’d like the contractor to provide materials as soon as possible.

4. We ordered the trainee to set the letter of inquiry.

3. What do we use after “have” + object?

a. When we cause someone to do something for us, we use have + object + bare infinitive:

Have the next client come in, please.

We may also use have + know, have + believe:

I’ll have you knowI’m the company secretary.

b. We use have + object + -ing to refer to intended results, and unintended consequences:

I’ll have you speakingEnglish in no time.

Be careful! You’ll have the customers complaining.

1.8.3 Use the bare infinitive or the -ing form after have in these sentences.

Model:Have him bring the complaints about unexecuted orders.(to bring)

(We cause someone to do something for us)

1. Mr. Grant had his secretary _____________ the interview with the unwilling customer. (to interrupt)

2. I won’t have anyone _________ in my business affairs. (to interfere)

3. I’ll have you ______________ I’m a qualified accountant. (to know)

4. He had her ________ they executed payment as per the debit-note to her. (to believe)

5. When the United States encountered serious balance of payments problems in the 1960s, the government had all the banks ________ the number of loans they could extend abroad. (to reduce)

6. I would not have you _________ (to think), Mr. Thorn, that your insurers need be liable for the damage.

7. Don’t let’s have them ________ the quantity of subsidies. (to reduce)

Model:We have people complaining about unexecuted orders all hours. (to complain)

(We speak about intended results or unintended consequences)

8. Greece and Norway have their large maritime fleets _____________ transportation services. (to provide)

9. He is an excellent manager. He’ll have you _________ without a loss in no time. (to operate)

10. He had never had anything like that _____ to him before. (to happen)

11. If we do not reschedule the production line, we will have employees _______ to execute orders on time. (to fail)

4. What is Complex Subject and when do we use it?

The subject of the sentence is sometimes expressed by a noun (or pronoun) and an Infinitivewhich follows the predicate. Although the noun (or pronoun) and the Infinitive do not stand together, they are closely connected and form a Complex Subject,which is used:

a. with verbs expressing permission, request, intention, order, compulsion[10] such as allow, permit, suffer, order, command, compel, force, make, request, mean, intend, etc.

The customers were requested to be ready by 7 o’clock.

They were ordered to cancel the deal.

b. with verbs expressing perception of the senses, such as hear, see, feel, etc.

They were seen to take out a policy at the Lloyds.

c. with verbs of mental perception, such as expect, know, believe, deny, etc.

He was believed to have a letter of credit confirmed on the London bank.

d. with verbs of saying and reporting , such as say, report, state, pronounce etc.

This company is said to be set up as a trading subsidiary.

e. with such verbs as seem, appear, happen, prove, chance, etc., and with expressions to be sure (certain, uncertain, likely, unlikely. Here the predicate is in the Active Voice:

He appears to be very enterprising.