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Advertising is a collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. Advertising techniques range from the publishing of simple notes in the newspapers to the use of television, radio, direct mail, and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign.

It isn't easy to establish when the first advertisement appeared, and it is not surprising since it goes back to very ancient times. A papyrus in the collection of the British museum, in London, advertises the sale of a slave. Rock drawings and inscriptions along the roads were also an excellent way to advertise things.

Probably the oldest advertisement was found in the excavations of the ancient Egyptian town of Memphis. It says: "I, Rhinos from Cyprus, live here. God gave me the gift of the true telling of dreams." This advertisement is 2,500 years old. It is carved in stone and visitors to one of the Cairo museums can inspect it. In the excavations of one of the towns of ancient Greek archaeologists found about 300 stone fragments with letters of the Greek alphabet. When they put the fragments together they found it was a tablet for a shop window with a list of goods and their prices.

The first newspaper in the world that put in an advertisement was a hand­written Roman newspaper "Daily Happenings". It contained announcements of meetings, births, and marriages in the noble families of Rome.

To attract customers bright signs with the name of the owner and his goods painted on them appeared above shops. Fruit, vegetables, sheep, shoes, hats were painted by "naive painters." Some of these painters were really outstanding masters, such as Niko Pirosmanishvili.

Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization, mirroring contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Advertising falls into two main categories: consumer advertising, directed to the ultimate purchaser, and trade advertising, in which the appeal is made to dealers through trade journals and other media. Both consumer and trade advertising employ many specialized types of commercial persuasion.

Advertising may be local, national, or international in scope. The rates charged for the three different levels of advertising vary sharply, particularly in newspapers; varying rates are set also by newspapers for amusement, legal, political, financial, religious, and charitable advertisements.

6. Answer the following questions:

1. What is advertising? 2. In what ways do the advertising techniques range?

3. Why isn’t it easy to establish when the first advertisements appeared?

4. How old may the first advertisement be? 5. What was the title of the first newspaper that put in an advertisement? 6. What kinds of advertising can you name?

7. Translate the following sentences:

1. Реклама - коллективный термин для общественно-направленных объявлений, которые стремятся содействовать продаже товаров или услуᴦ. 2. Реклама - это форма массовой продажи, которая появляется тогда, когда личностная форма торговли непрактична, невозможна или неэффективна. 3. Техника рекламы варьируется от простых прямых объявлений в отделœе рекламы и объявлений в газете до комплексных видов рекламы с применением газет, журналов, ТВ, радио, почты и других средств массовой информации в ходе одной рекламной кампании. 4. Реклама делится на торговую, обращение нацелœено на торговцев посредством торговых журналов и других средств массовой информации, и потребительскую, нацелœенную на покупателя. 5. По охвату реклама может быть местной, общегосударственной или международной. 6. Расценки на эти три вида резко отличаются друг от друга, особенно в газетах, которые назначают разную цену за разные виды рекламы: развлекательной, юридической, политической, финансовой, религиозной и благотворительной.

8. Put the key sentences in order, divide into small groups and speak about some aspects of advertising:

- types of advertising;

- techniques to attract customers;

- modern advertising;

- the history of advertising;

- the essence of advertising, advertising techniques.


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