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Маркетинг Major Domestic and Worldwide Factors Influencing the Development of Accounting Objectives, Standards, and Practices
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Figure 19.4

There are several factors that influence the development of accounting objectives, standards, and practices; most of them relate to internal factors, but some of them are a result of external influences. Source: Lee H. Radebaugh,

"Environmental Factors Influencing the Development of Accounting Objectives,

Standards, and Practices—The Peruvian Case," The International Journal of Accounting, Fall 1975, p. 41.

Nature of the EnterpriseWithin every enterprise there are many users of information, such as managers and employees. The quantity and quality of information provided depends on the users' level of sophistication as well as on the accountants' technical competence. Managers require specialized information to assist in decision making, and this has led to the development of managerial accounting. Employees, especially in Europe, have a vested interest in the enterprise and may have an impact on the disclosure of financial data as they seek better wages and working conditions.

GovernmentGovernment is one of the most pervasive forces in the development of accounting objectives, standards, and practices. Government can be divided into two groups: users and regulators. Users are tax authorities, planning commissions, and various agencies that compile statistics for general use. Regulators, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission in the United States, respond to the perceived best interests of the general public.

The extent to which the government becomes involved in the setting of objectives, standards, and practices depends on the interaction of all the factors listed in Fig. 19.4. Where the government is an important user of information, does not feel that the accounting profession is meeting users' needs, and does not foresee much change in the near future, it will probably take a much more active role in influencing the development of accounting.

Other External UsersThe major external users of information other than those mentioned above are investors and creditors. Investors can work alone or through institutions by way of pension funds, mutual funds, and other such investments. In countries where there is a small equity market, creditors tend to be an important source of financing and thus a strong influence on accounting standards and practices.

Local Environmental CharacteristicsThis category of factors influencing accounting is probably the broadest and perhaps the most important, including such diverse influences as cultural attitudes and the nature and state of the economy. The four factors listed in Fig. 19.4 are by no means exhaustive. Although the characteristics are referred to as "local," they are not independent of the world economy. The rates of economic growth and inflation depend on a country's major trading partners as well as on internal economic conditions.

International InfluencesMany international forces that are institutional rather than environmental have influenced accounting principles worldwide. A prime example is the colonial influence of England and France during the past few centuries. Each of these countries carried their business and accounting philosophies to their colonies and instituted similar systems. The United States also has tended to do this as its economic influence has spread through direct foreign investment.

Accounting ProfessionAs it has done in countries such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, the accounting profession itself can influence the development of accounting principles. Three aspects of the profession are important: (1) its nature and extent, (2) the existence of professional associations, and (3) the auditing function. In some countries, the profession is relatively undeveloped and has little influence on accounting. In the United States and the United Kingdom, however, the profession is quite large and well-developed, and it has a strong influence on the development of accounting standards and practices. The existence of associations, such as the American Institute of CPAs, is important, because these groups can often be a force for change. Finally, a strong profession often results in a strong auditing function. Independent external auditors are needed to verify that the financial statements adhere to accepted accounting standards and they represent the true financial position of the firm.

Academic InfluenceThe academic infrastructure refers to the quality of accounting education offered as well as to the accessibility of this education. One of the typical problems in developing countries is the shortage of qualified professors in the accounting field. Since instruction in accounting is not considered a full-time profession and generally is not done at a very high level, little academic research that could introduce change in accounting practices is done.

New words

truck - грузовик

involvement - участие

to wield - орудовать

inherent - неотъемлемый

faith - доверие

advantage - преимущество

expatriates - эмигранты

to complain - жаловаться

to impede - мешать

adjustment - регулирование

reluctant - сопротивляющийся

awareness - осведомленность

to imply - предполагать

approach - подход

workshops - мастерская

assignment - отчисление

tax accounting – налоговый учет

shortage - нехватка