Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Маркетинг Graphical Abbreviations. Acronyms
просмотров - 282

A growing custom to use laconic forms, to call countries, different official organizations by initial abbreviations typical of written speech was established in English since 30s – 40s of the XX-th century. They are very popular on the threshhold of the XXI-st century.

There are two types of orthoepic correlation between written and spoken forms. If the abbreviated written form is read as an ordinary English word it is called an acronym: UNO – United Nations Organization, USA – United States of America, NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization, radar – radio detection and ranging, TESOL – Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Coining new words from the initial letters of phrasal terms is explained by the requirement for a strong signal in the minimum time.

If the abbreviated written form retains alphabetical reading it is pronounced as a series of letters: BBC – the British Broadcasting Corporation, GI – Government Issue, DOD – Department of Defense, GOP – Grand Old Party (Republican), FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation (cf. Russian ФБР), MP – Memeber of Parliament or Military Police.

A special type of graphical abbreviations is used in writing to replace full forms of words and to economize time, space and effort. N.Y. – New York, X-mas – Christmas, B.A. – Bachelor of Arts, U-boat – a submarine, U-language – upper-class language.

Latin abbreviations typical of written speech may be replaced in reading by their English equivalents: e.g. – exempli gratia, p.m. – post meridiem, ib (id) – ibidem, i.e. – id est, op.cit. –opus citato, cf. – conferre.

There are certain graphical abbreviations which are in active use:

Apt. Apartment – квартира

Blvd. Boulevard – бульвар

P.O. – Post Office – почта

Rd. – Road – дорога

Rw. – Railway – желœезная дорога

St. –Saint – святой

St. – Street – улица

Names of American States:

AL – Alabama, FL – Florida, NB – Nebraska, OK – Oklahoma

Days of the Week:

Mo – Monday, Tues – Tuesday, Fri – Friday


M. – May, Mar. – March, Oct. – October, J. – July

Special Signs:

@ - at the rate of – по цене

/ - and, or – и, или

# - number – номер

& - and – и

© - copyright – авторское право


c – cents – центы

D/A – documents attached – документы приложены

ft – foot – фут (30, 48 см)

Inc. – Incorporated – имеющий статус корпорации

LE – Latest estimates – последние данные

M & S – marketing & sales – маркетинг и продажи

N/C – no change – без начислений

OH – overhead expenses – накладные расходы

do. ditto – то же самое

hrs – hours – часы

enc(l). – enclosure – приложение

intl. – international – международный

et, al – et alii (лат.) – и другие

i/c – in charge of – исполняющий обязанности

СОD – cash on delivery – оплата наложенным платежом

A/R – all risks – любая случайность