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Лингвистика Classification of compound words.
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It may be according to:

1) derivational point of view one should be distinguish to two derivational bases. Subdivided to 3 groups:

a. derivate compound nouns are usually built by conversion or on the basis of words: breakthrough (прорыв)

b. derivate compound adjectives are built by suffixation: broad showed

c. derivate compound verbs are created by ways of conversion (a weekend – to weekend)

2) According to the part of speech compound words is mainly nouns. The most common patterns for noun compounds are noun + noun (software), adverb + noun (afterthought), verb + noun (searchlight), noun + verb (sunshine). Compound words wide spread in adjectives. Types: combination of 2 derivational bases: noun + adjectives (lifelong). Also many different patterns according which compound adjectives may be decided adj + adj (death-mute), noun + V-ing(-ed) (peace-loving, doctired), adj + V-ing, adverb + V-ing(-ed) Composition is not characteristic of modern English pronounce but historical trace still exist (somebody, anywhere). In modern English word composition not wide, but wide in the past (honeymoon, snowball)

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3) Semantically

a. Endocentric – second element is the head. They make up the bulk, for example: sunshine, blackboard

b. Exocentric (bahuvrihi - термин древнеиндийской лингвистики и поэтики: сложное слово со значением принадлежности, обладания, называет человека или предмет по характеризующим его признакам, к примеру, по части тела, по одежде. Само слово бахуврихи устроено именно таким образом: оно состоит из частей bahu- (обильный) и -vrihi (рис) и дословно означает «богатый рисом».) – first element is the head. They include derivative compound nouns. For example: scapegoat (козел отпущения)

c. Coordinative (dvandva - др.-инд. dvandva 'пара'; термин древнеиндийской грамматической традиции, сложное слово, составляющие которого находятся в сочинительных отношениях) – both derivational bases are equally important

· Reduplicative (fifty-fifty)

· Phonetically varied rhythmic-twin forms (zigzag, woky-toky)

Antrushina gives 3 types of classification

1) neutral – compounds without any link in elements (sunflower, bedroom). Some subtypes depending on the structure of the constituent words:

o derivational compounds – have affixes (absent-mindedness, golden-head, film-goer). Numerous nonce-words are coined on this pattern (lunches-out-person – who takes lunch at restaurant, not at home, gus-lesher – murder-story)

o Contracted compounds – TV-set, V-day, T-shirt

2) Morphological – two stems (основы) are combined by link in vowel or consonant (handicraft, Anglo-Saxon, spokes-man)

3) Syntactic compounds – formed from segments of speech which preserved articles, prepositions (sit-at-home)

Compounds may be classified according to the structure of free word groups correlate: noun + noun correlate to verb + noun: image-maker, image-making.


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