Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Изобретательство List of abbreviations
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P. Abrahams (P.A.) Al. Huxley (Al. H.)
C. Ahern (C. A.) R. Kipling (R. K.)
R. Aldington (R. A.) J. Lindsay (J. L.)
J. Archer (J. A.) W.S. Maugham (W.S.M.)
N. Bawlden (N. B.) J. Michael (J. M.)
T. Capote (T. C.) H. Munro (H. M.)
J. Cooper (J. C.) O. Nash (O. N.)
Ch. Dickens (D.) E. O’Neill (O’N.)
W. Deeping (W. D) J. Dos Passos (J. D P.)
E. Ferber (E. F.) J.B. Priestley (J.B.P.)
Sc. Fitzgerald (Sc. F.) B. Shaw (B. Sh.)
J. Galsworthy (J. G.)   I. Shaw (I. Sh.)  
Gr. Greene (Gr. Gr.) A. Sillitoe (A. S.)
A. Hailey (A. H.) Th. Smith (Th. S.)
E. Hemingway (E. H.) J. Steinbeck (J. St.)
St. Heim (St. H.) Th. Wilder (Th. W.)
    M. Wilson (M. W.)

List of phrases for text analysis.

1. To begin with ...
2. For one thing ..., for another ...
3. On the one hand ..., on the other hand
4. The thing (matter, fact, point) is ...
5. I'd like to point out that ...
6. I'd like to call (your) attention to the fact that ...
7. I mean to say ...
8. On the whole ...
9. At the beginning of the story (in the beginning) the author describes (depicts, introduces, characterizes, sympathizes with, gives a summary of, gives his (an) account of, portrays, narrates)
10. The story (the author) begins with a (the) description of (the introduction of, the analysis of)
11. The story opens with ...
12. The scene is laid in ...
13. The author passes on to ... (gives a detailed analysis (description, etc) of ...
14. In conclusion the author ...
15. The author concludes with ...
16. The story ends with ...
17. To finish with, the author describes ...
18. The author draws the conclusion
19. to side with
20. to refer to
21. to react to
22. to enumerate
23. to point out
24. to generalize
25. to make critical remarks on smth
26. to oppose smth to smth
27. to support smb's point of view
28. to sympathize with
29. to expose
30. to condemn
31. to emphasize, to underline, to stress
32. to convince (the reader); to laugh at; to mock at; to deride; to ridicule
33. to create the effect
34. to raise the question
35. The paragraph that follows serves as a general introduction
36. to draw his character in a mildly ironical way
37. The humour of the situation is enhanced
38. The attack is primarily aimed at
39. The stylistic device most prominent in the extract
40. It is achieved by purely syntactical means
41. The dialogue is vivid, dynamic, full of humour and fun
42. The central idea of the above passage is
43. Stylistically this is expressed in (by)
44. The humorous effect is enhanced by the contrast between
45. The language of the scene is rich in
46. It is interesting to note that
47. In the chosen part the portrayal is achieved by means of
48. The scene gives the reader an idea of
49. The atmosphere of ... is created by
50. Towards the end of the passage
51. The choice of words conveys
52. The antithesis is sustained by
53. Towards the end of the extract the irony becomes especially subtle and one has to read between the lines
54. The climax comes when
55. To impress this contrast upon the reader
56. A device greatly favoured by
57. The monotony of ... is broken up by
58. This is clearly meant to create a picture for the reader to see
59. The extract under consideration naturally falls into ... parts
60. The true-to-life portrait of
61. The story is told in simple, homely colloquial English
62. The vocabulary matches the subject
63. The language of the story is rich in colloquial idiom and phrases
64. This is achieved both syntactically in the short, even abrupt sentences and lexically in the abundance of the emotional words and expressions
65. A significant metaphor plays an important part in portraying
66. The inner monologue is a very fine piece of characterization
67. The author makes ample use of the dialogue as an efficient means to let his characters speak for themselves without the author's interference
68. The climax of the passage is ...
69. His vocabulary is as simple as his syntax
70. It is very rich in words and phrases
71. The similes are introduced to render ...
72. The language is artificial, bookish, rich in terms
73. The style is deliberately dry and dispassionate
74. The story is told by
75. Each paragraph forms a complete unit
76. Rich and vivid epithets
77. The epithets are combined with metaphors
78. The choice of words is remarkable for their sonorous quality
79. The alliterations are mainly based on the l- and r-sounds
80. The features make the passage particularly musical
81. The emotional colouring is made definite by words naming or expressing emotions
82. There is an allusion to
83. The method of description is mostly direct
84. The simplicity of the language harmonizes well with the simple feelings of common people
85. They also have some symbolic value
86. The author resorts to simple direct (indirect) characterization
87. The effect is further enhanced
88. The description is focussed on
89. The main part of the selection is devoted to
90. The writer has a sharp eye for detail
91. The main personage is convincing
92. The effect is achieved primarily by the very obvious contrast between
93. Emotional, appraising epithets
94. The reiteration of the epithet
95. The emotional colouring of depends
96. The text (style, vocabulary) abounds in ...
97. The idea (thought) that runs through (permeates) the entire story (extract)
98. The author implies (means to say) that
99. The idea is explicitly (implicitly rendered (stated, conveyed))



Study the topics “Education in the USA” and “Education in the UK” (pp.30-58 in Discussion Guide: British and American Studies:Учеб. пособие/ Т.Н. Дубровская, Н.П. Звонак, О.А. Зинина и др. – Мн.: МГЛУ,2003.-120с.).

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