Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


История Americans
просмотров - 1391








Today's growing interdependence among the Globe nations seems to end the days of absolute national sovereignty. But the nation's culture, character and identity continue to persist and matter.

Any country's destiny is determined, to a decisive extent, by the character of the people who formed it. And it is precisely this character, though changing with time, still remains constant, at its basis, during the history of the nation.

The British characteris described differently. But most people agree over the Britons' great sense of superiority or their insular pride. The British regard their community as the center of the world. They look like being conscious of their historic mission "to rule the world". Their patriotism is based on a deep sense of security. They are sure in their national success.

Britain is supposed to be the land of law and order. The British always display unity in a crisis and strong sense for the public order. To queue up is one of their customs. They arc naturally polite and are never tired of saying "Sorry!" and "Thank you."

The British do not like showing off in their manners, speech and dress. They are practical and realistic, prudent and careful about almost everything. Their houses are always in order, with neat lawns and nice gardens.

The Britons are also known to be rather conservative. They love familiar things and are very reluctant to any changes. Perhaps, there is no other nation that so clings to the past as the British. They keep up their old customs, traditions and institutions that seem rather strange to many foreigners. The warders at the Tower of London in their funny flat hats, the Queen's levees, the Quard changing and many other customs and ceremonies are quite natural for the British. They rooted in their minds and souls and harmoniously mix with their everyday life.

The British longing for privacy is notorious. They live in the country of brick fences and stone walls to shut out from their neighbours. As the saying goes: An Englishman's house is his castle.

Possessing a unique capacity for governing themselves and others, the British hardly ever lie, but they wouldn't even dream of telling you the truth.

Знаете ли вы?

Англичан трудно спутать с кем бы то ни было. Οʜᴎ везде вносят свои привычки, обычаи, манеру поведения. Их ха­рактер — оригинальный, самобытный и в высшей степени цельный.

Когда речь идет об их «жесткой верхней губе» (to have a stiff upper lip = не терять мужества, держаться молодцом), то име­ются в виду два понятия: 1) культ самоконтроля, т. е. спо­собность владеть собой; и 2) культ предписанного поведения, т. е. умение должным образом реагировать на различные жиз­ненные ситуации. Внешний вид и приличия — важнее всœего для англичан.

При этом терпимость к чужому мнению, самообладание, сдер­жанность, невозмутимость и обходительность не всœегда были основными чертами английского характера в «веселой старой Англии». Принципы «джентльменского поведения» были воз­ведены в культ при королеве Виктории.

Многие иностранцы сходятся во мнении, что характер анг­личан состоит из весьма противоречивых, порой довольно па­радоксальных черт.

Одной из них является их «трудноуловимость». Англичане никогда не раскрываются полностью. Буквально с рождения их учат не проявлять своих истинных чувств, подавлять любую несдержанность.

И поскольку англичане редко говорят то, что думают на самом делœе, и имеют склонность недоговаривать и умалчи­вать, их юмор основан на высмеивании именно этой грани английского характера. Их шутки чаще всœего бывают чрезвы­чайно мудреные, смысл которых порой уловить практически невозможно.

Феноменом в жизни англичан являются различные клубы, которые берут свое начало от таверн и кофеен и считаются непревзойденным английским изобретением,

Сегодня в Великобритании существуют клубы на разные вкусы: политические, дискуссионные, художествен­но-эстетические, спортивные и множество других.

Каждый клуб имеет свои правила поведения и этикета. Большинство клубов основано на сегрегации по классовому или половому признакам. Всех претендентов тщательно про­веряют.

Членство в клубе является неотъемлемой частью деловой и профессиональной жизни британцев. Клубы играют огром­ную роль в воспитании той общительности, которую британ­цы считают залогом своего успеха.

Именно в клубах осмысливаются новости, отрабатываются идеи, формируется общественная культура страны, развива­ются нужные связи. Здесь британцы получают возможность почувствовать свою сопричастность ко всœему, что происходит в их обществе и в мире.

Клубы чрезвычайно важны для англичан. Οʜᴎ являются их домом, их семейным святилищем, тайны которых никогда не разглашаются. Изгнание из клуба считается для них величай­шим позором.

The UK population consists of Englishmen — 76%, Scots — 9%, Welsh — 5% , Irish — 4% and some others. And when one speaks of the British, one often means all the other nations living within the United Kingdom — Scots, Welsh, Irish, etc. However, the difference between these nations is great enough for everyone who lives in Britain, though for the outside world it is much smaller than they themselves like to believe.

Scotland is an integral part of the UK. That is why it is often characterized as "a stateless and mongrel nation". But it is not true.

Due to the huge population migrations into and out of the country, Scotland achieved a kind of unified culture. However, it has never abandoned the sense of its specific national character and managed to preserve and consolidate its civic society.

The country has its own government, language (that belongs to the Indo-European language group) and culture, its own customs and traditions, and, of course, its own heroes glorified in the battles against England.

The Scottish national identity has been forged in the struggles between its own clans, as well as against oppression and exploitation, for its independence.

Scots are often called great nationalists.

Yes, they are. But their nationalism has nothing to do with that of Hitler, for example. It is of another kind, "an ethnic nationalism". It means "the nation building" as an inclusive civil society that mobilizes all the talents, energies and cooperation of the population to create a modem industrial state.

It is difficult to answer what the Scottish character is. Scots are the nation of the boundless potential.They are known as hard­working, patient, tacit and business-like people. Due to their prudence and great thrift, they have got the reputation of misers. Yes, they do not like to spend their money, but when they do, they like to get as much as they can for it.

They may be rather aggressive when their national identity is mistaken. But they may also be very friendly and hospitable with those whom they like. Their national dress (kilt), national musical instrument (bagpipes) and national drink (Scotch = the Scottish whisky) greatly add to their originality.

Thistle, the national emblem of Scotland, characterizes its people rigour and on the 30-th of November stubbornness best of all. The Scots wear it in the buttonholes when they celebrate the Day of their Patron-Saint Andrew.

Being the descendants of the oldest nation in Europe — the Celts, they greatly value freedom and independence. To put the whole thing in a nutshell, Scotland is not England.

Ireland, being under the British dominion for a long time, still did not lose a sense of its distinct national identity.

The Irish people can never be English. The difference between an Englishman and an Irishman, as the old saying goes, is that to the first the things are always hopeless but never desperate, and to the second the things are always desperate but never hopeless.

Many historians claim that Ireland is not a simple place, but a complex and conflicted society. The Irish are often characterized as masculine and rebellious. Their violence and turbulent emotions are, however, combined with their great sentimentality.

In the Irish you may find both cheer and despair or sometimes great optimism. You may also wonder at their kindness and hospitality. Being witty extroverts, they are good talkers. And they are also famous for their singing abilities.

As to their national emblem, it is a shamrock in Northern Ireland, and a red hand — in Ireland. The Irish celebrate the Day of their Patron — Saint Patrik on the 17-th of March.

Perhaps no country in the world has a greater love of music and poetry than the people of Wales. They are proud of their culture and traditions and are really gifted in the art of self-expression. They are very jovial and fond of singing. Harps and fiddles are almost in every house.

Sometimes the Welsh are characterized as a nation lacking in the extreme. But it is not true at all. They have always been independent and rebellious.

The Welsh are very noisy people, with a very eccentric character. Sometimes they may seem rather rough or slow and stubborn. Many foreigners think that the Welsh often resemble the Germans. But in their hearts there burns the fire of patriotism and enthusiastic love of their homeland and their native language.

They are also regarded as warm-hearted, faithful to friends and hospitable to strangers, as well as industrious and able "to put by for a rainy day". They live a simple life. But their homes are always artistic and comfortable.

On the 1 of March the Welsh celebrate the Day of their Patron — Saint David. It is a very important day for them. In their buttonholes they have daffodils and leek — their country national emblems.

The Welsh managed to preserve their unique and remarkable culture. And they proudly cherish their heritage and patriotism.

It's not easy to define clearly what the Americans are. Due to numerous migrations the US is a country with a very diverse population and a lot of subcultures. That's why it would be a great mistake to think that Americans are all alike. However, as a nation, they have certain characteristics, qualities and values that are typical only of them.

First of all, Americans dare to think themselves to be the best nation in the world. They strongly believe in their political institutions' superiority and tend to thaist their will and views on others.

Their national flag "Stars and Stripes" can be seen everywhere: in schools and colleges, parks and squares, on various buildings, private houses and on their clothes.

To win is the main feature of the American psychology. Any event in their life (graduation party, marriage, buying a car), is organized so that to outdo the others. They are ready to compete with everybody, even with their own relatives and best friends.

Americans are a self-centered nation, not bound by traditions. They live in present and think about their future. That's why they are little interested in history or any other cultures. The main principle of their society is individualism that is reflected in their choices in life, their destinies, in their family relations, etc.

The idea of freedom is very important for Americans. They prefer to be self-reliant and live independently, apart from their parents, often allowing the latter to end their days in the retirement homes.

Making money and career is their main aim. They are not so attached sociologically to one person or a group of people, as we are. They mostly prefer easy relations with people and value only their own privacy.

Unlike Englishmen, Americans like sociability. They are very informal. You can hear their "Hi!" everywhere. Their informality of speech, clothes and behavior is often astonishing. Americans can do any things, they like, and ask personal questions, while Englishmen think it to be ill-manners.

By their nature Americans are rather pushing, inventive, socially active, energetic and too talkative. But they are also optimistic and democratic. Sometimes they can display overwhelming hospi­tality.

Most of their spare time Americans spend outdoors. Sports and recreation are the most important things for them. They are the members of various associations and clubs and are very fond of family week-ends, receptions and cookouts. Everyday showers and change of clothes, talks about sports and favourite drinks are of great importance for them too.

It is well known that Americans are a very mobile nation that is constantly moving all over the country. Having none of the English sentimental love for old things, they adore various changes and buying new things.

All Americans are equal in their country. The rule "First come, first served" is strictly observed with them. However, they also show consciousness of social distinction.

Знаете ли вы?

1. It is not customary in the USA to drop into one's house for no reason or without any invitation. You should call first and arrange a meeting. Americans are rather hospitable but more relaxed in their attitude towards guests. They may leave you all alone or do everything for you, but only in case if you ask them.

2. There are several things that are not recommended to do in some countries because it is not customary or may be taken as ill manners.

In Japanese culture, for example, it's impolite to accept any thing when it is offered for the first time. As a rule, they accept on the third offer.

Spaniards are fond of talking. They can talk about various things for hours. However, talks about death and money are taboo with them. They also think the question about one's age to be impolite and rude.

Знаете ли вы?

Читайте также

  • - Americans at Work.

    The topic of work in the USA is an interesting one because the statistics don’t always agree with popular general impression about American workers and the American economy. I will try to reconcile these impressions with what we know from some recent statistics. To get you warmed up, let me give you a few questions to think about before I start the first point of our lecture today: Do you think most Americans work in factories that produce goods for domestic use and exportation? Do you think... [читать подробенее]

  • - Difference Between the English and the Americans.

    American English Varieties of English As English has spread, so has it changed, and there are now several recognized varieties of English. While the English spoken in Britain's former "white" colonies — the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand — is still very similar to British English, and differs from it only in matters of vocabulary and phraseology, the English spoken in the West Indies and in countries such as India where English is the second language... [читать подробенее]

  • - Americans

    III. II. I. III. II I. THEIR MANNERS Today's growing interdependence among the Globe nations seems to end the days of absolute national sovereignty. But the nation's culture, character and identity continue to persist and matter. Any country's destiny is determined, to a decisive extent, by the character of the people who formed it. And it is precisely this character, though changing with time, still remains constant, at its basis, during the... [читать подробенее]

  • - Understanding Americans

    Control Freaks To be in control, it helps to have nature on your side. Some cultures live in harmony with their environment. Americans like to wrestle it to the ground and harness its power for their own personal use. Wind, sun, and ocean waves are transformed into valuable energy sources. State-of-the-art heating and air-conditioning systems allow Alaskans and Floridians to enjoy the same room temperatures all year round. Fatalistic cultures believe that bad luck is inevitable and... [читать подробенее]

  • - The Native Americans

    Who were the first Americans? They were aboriginal dark-skinned people, called by Columbus “Indians”, in the mistaken belief that he had reached the East Indies. The other names for them are “Native Americans”, “Amerindians”, “American Indians”, “indigenous Americans” and “aboriginal Americans”. Their ancestors came to the continent from Asia, Siberia. They crossed the Bering Strait and got to Alaska at various times when the sea level dropped and scattered all over the... [читать подробенее]

  • - Effects on Native Americans

    Definition of the Midwest as a region Prohibition of slavery Establishment of Natural Rights The Natural Rights provisions of the ordinance foreshadowed the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Many of the concepts and guarantees of the Ordinance of 1787 were incorporated in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the Northwest Territory, various legal and property rights were enshrined, religious tolerance was proclaimed, and it was... [читать подробенее]

  • - Americans are not your enemy, president tells Arabic TV network as US envoy sets out on eight days of talks

    Obama seeks to repair damage in Middle East diplomacy drive Barack Obama, interviewed in Washington by the Dubai-based al-Arabiya cable network Photograph: Al-Arabiya/AP Barack Obama has sought to mend America's ties with the Muslim world, declaring: "Americans are not your enemy." In a signal of his desire to repair the diplomatic damage of the George Bush era, Obama chose to give his first formal television interview since becoming US president to the Arabic cable TV... [читать подробенее]

  • - Young Americans Bank

    Young Americans Bank has clients who stand no taller than T. Boone Pickens’ belt buckle. The bank makes MasterCards available to customers as young as 12. To qualify for the $95-a-year plastic credit card, the applicant must have an account at the bank and, if under 18, an adult cosigner. When the bank opened, it amused locals. But the bank is proving itself. It opened an impressive 5,000 accounts in the first seven months of business, has $1.3 million in capital, and plans to break even this... [читать подробенее]