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История Assassination
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The Constitutions of Clarendon

Henry II and Thomas Becket

Task 3. Supplementary reading. Read and say what facts were not mentioned in the film.

Becket was ordained a priest on 2 June 1162 at Canterbury, and on 3 June 1162 was consecrated as archbishop by Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester and the other bishops of Canterbury.

A rift grew between Henry and Becket as the new archbishop resigned his chancellorship and sought to recover and extend the rights of the archbishopric. This led to a series of conflicts with the king, including that over the jurisdiction of secular courts over English clergymen, which accelerated antipathy between Becket and the king. Attempts by King Henry to influence the other bishops against Becket began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of the traditional rights of the royal government in regard to the church. This led to Clarendon, where Becket was officially asked to sign off on the King’s rights or face political repercussions.

King Henry II presided over the assemblies of most of the higher English clergy at Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164. In sixteen constitutions, he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome. He employed all his skills to induce their consent and was apparently successful with all but Becket. Finally, even Becket expressed his willingness to agree to the substance of the Constitutions of Clarendon, but he still refused to formally sign the documents. Henry summoned Becket to appear before a great council at Northampton Castle on 8 October 1164, to answer allegations of contempt of royal authority and malfeasance in the Chancellor's office. Convicted on the charges, Becket stormed out of the trial and fled to the Continent. Henry pursued the fugitive archbishop with a series of edicts, aimed at all his friends and supporters as well as Becket himself; but King Louis VII of France offered Becket protection. He spent nearly two years in the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny, until Henry's threats against the order obliged him to return to Sens. Becket fought back by threatening excommunication and interdict against the king and bishops and the kingdom.

In 1170, Pope Alexander sent delegates to impose a solution to the dispute. At that point, Henry offered a compromise that would allow Thomas to return to England from exile.

In June 1170, Roger de Pont L'Évêque, the archbishop of York, along with Gilbert Foliot, the bishop of London, and Josceline de Bohon, the bishop of Salisbury, crowned Henry the Young King at York. This was a breach of Canterbury's privilege of coronation, and in November 1170 Becket excommunicated all three. While the three clergymen fled to the king in Normandy, Becket continued to excommunicate his opponents in the church, the news of which also reached Henry.

Upon hearing reports of Becket's actions, Henry is said to have uttered words that were interpreted by his men as wishing Becket killed. The king's exact words are in doubt and several versions have been reported. The most commonly quoted, as handed down by "oral tradition", is "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?", but according to historian Simon Schama this is incorrect: he accepts the account of the contemporary biographer Edward Grim, writing in Latin, who gives us "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and brought up in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric?" Many variations have found their way into popular culture.

Whatever Henry said, it was interpreted as a royal command, and four knights, Reginald fitz Urse,Hugh de Morville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton, set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury.

On 29 December 1170 they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts left by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a tree outside the cathedral and hid their mail armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket. The knights informed Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. It was not until Becket refused their demands to submit to the king's will that they retrieved their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing. Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The four knights, wielding drawn swords, caught up with him in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers.

Altar marking the spot of Thomas Becket's martyrdom, Canterbury Cathedral.

Several contemporary accounts of what happened next exist; of particular note is that of Edward Grim, who was himself wounded in the attack. This is part of the account from Edward Grim:

...The wicked knight leapt suddenly upon him, cutting off the top of the crown which the unction of sacred chrism had dedicated to God. Next he received a second blow on the head, but still he stood firm and immovable. At the third blow he fell on his knees and elbows, offering himself a living sacrifice, and saying in a low voice, 'For the name of Jesus and the protection of the Church, I am ready to embrace death.' But the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay prostrate. By this stroke, the crown of his head was separated from the head in such a way that the blood white with the brain, and the brain no less red from the blood, dyed the floor of the cathedral. The same clerk who had entered with the knights placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr, and, horrible to relate, scattered the brains and blood about the pavements, crying to the others, 'Let us away, knights; this fellow will arise no more.

IV. "Nations"

1216–1348, this is the epic account of how the nations of Britain emerged from under the hammer of England's "Longshanks" King Edward I, with a sense of who and what they were, which endures to this day.

Task 1.Before watching Part 4 look through the timelineof events between Magna Charta and the Hundred Years War.

1215Magna Charta, treaty agreed between King John and his rebellious barons, asserts some fundamental rights of free English people.

1216 – 1272 the reign of Henry III

1258 The Provisions of Oxford- a set of reform proposals imposed (навязанные) on Henry III. A governing council was to be established which was the first step to Parliament.

1264 The battle of Lewes was won by Simon de Montfort, and with both king Henry III and Prince Edward in his custody (в плену), Montfort became a real ruler of England.

1266The Scots take over the Hebrides and the lordship of the Isle of Man from Norway .

1267 England recognizes Gruffydd ap Llywelyn as prince of Wales.

1272 -1307 the reign of Edward I. Edward was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1274.

1282Conquest of Wales by English king Edward I.

1284Declaration of Rhuddlan brings Wales under English rule.

1290Edward I expels the Jews from England, confiscating their property; English attempts at conquering Scotland.

1307 – 1327 the reign of Edward II

1314 Scottish victory over the English at Bannockburn.

1327 – 1377 the reign of Edward III

1328In the Treaty of Edinburgh, England recognizes Scottish independence.

1337–1453 Hundred Years’ War between England and France.

Task 2. Watch the part and find answers to the following questions using the key words in brackets:

· What is the introduction about? What peoples began to realize their national identity and rose against the English?

to do homage – присягать на верность;

· What were the principal events of Henry III’s reign ? (Reconstruction of Westminster Abbey; conflicts with Barons, attempts to strengthen Royal power, Simon de Montfort’s revolt, origin of Parliament, battle of Lewes;)

drastic shrinkage of power – радикальное уменьшение власти;

repel– отвращать;

a horseback get away – побег на коне)?

· Describe the early years of Edward I reign. (Edward and Simon de Montfort, Battle of Evesham;)

slaughter -побоище

· How did Edward I conquer Wales? (Llywelin married Montfort’s daughter; second class citizens in their own country; )

subjugation – подчинœение;

castles – замки;

quaint –странный

· How did Edward treat the Jews? (outlawed money lending, he forced them to wear yellow felt badges of identification, in York, Lincoln and London)

hanged (вешал),

expelled (изгонял),

uprooted whole communities (вырвал с корнем целые коммуны)

· What is the origin of the name Charring Cross in London?

· Describe Edward I and Edward II attempts to invade and subjugate Scotland. (pretenders to the Scottish throne, the Bruces and the clan of John Balliol; English occupation of Scotland, Edward took the stone of Scone* to Westminster; William Wallace, battle of Stirling Bridge, battle of Falkirk, second occupation, Bruce’s reconquest, battle of Bannockburn, Declaration of Arbroath, Scots and Irish against England; Gaelic friends and English foes, liberators; myth of invincibility)

Invincibility – непобедимость

*Scone /sku:n/, near Perth, the original site of the ‘Stone of Destiny’ (камень судьбы) on which Scottish kings were seated during their inauguration. In 1296, Edward I took the Stone (a block of reddish-grey sandstone) from Stone Abbey to Westminster Abbey where it was placed under the Coronation Chair, since when all newly enthroned English sovereigns have sat upon it. (The History Today Companion to BRITISH HISTORY, edited by Juliet Gardiner & Neil Wenborn: Collins & Brown Limited, 1995, p. 678)

The size of the Stone of Scone is about 26 inches (660 mm) by 16.75 inches (425 mm) by 10.5 inches (270 mm) and its weight is approximately 336 pounds (152 kg).

On 3 July 1996 it was announced in the House of Commons that the Stone would be returned to Scotland, and on 15 November 1996, after a handover ceremony at the border it was transported toEdinburgh Castle, arriving on 30 November 1996, where it remains along with the crown jewels of Scotland in the Crown Room. The handover was done on St Andrew's Day (patron Saint of Scotland); the Queen sent as her representative Prince Andrew. Provision has been made to transport the stone to Westminster Abbey when it is required there for future coronation ceremonies.

(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_of_Scone)

Task 3. Put the following events in chronological order: battle of Bannockburn, battle of Lewes, English occupation of Scotland, battle of Evesham, subjugation of Wales, the reign if Henry III, the reign of Edward I, battle of Stirling Bridge, battle of Falkirk.

Task 4. Match up the historical events and the historical personalities:

Historical personalities Historical events
Prince Edward and Simon de Montfort The battle of Evesham in 1265
Edward II and Robert Bruce The battle of Falkirk in 1298
Henry III and Simon de Montfort The battle of Bannockburn in 1314
Edward I and William Wallace The battle of Lewes in 1264
Edward I and Llywelin Ap Gruffud The stone of Scone was brought to Westminster Abbey
Edward I The Treaty of Montgomery in 1267
Edward I and William Wallace The battle at Stirling Bridge

Task 5. Who of the following people are the words of the film about? Several quotations can match up with the same person.


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