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История CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS OF ENGLISH, BASHIR, RUSSIAN LANGUAGES
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Guldaniia Saginbaeva

Scientific advisorD.I. Hizbullina

Learning English is widespread in our country. Getting acquainted with a foreign language, a person enters into a new national culture. And good knowledge of the language is impossible without the knowledge of his phraseological units. World phraseology of Bashkir and English languages is ​​large and diverse, that is why the subject of this study is the similarities and differences of phraseological units in Bashkir and English languages.

Phraseology (greek phrasis - "expression", logos - "teaching") - a branch of linguistics, and it studies the stable combinations in the language. These are called phraseological units or phraseology.

Phraseological units are ready combinations of words. These are not produced in a speech like free phrases: new house, hot summers. There are produced. An important property of phraseological units in that the meaning of each is not the sum of the meanings of its constituent words.

Most often, phraseological units do not admit in its membership the additional words, there can not be a permutation of components.

When comparing of other phraseological units in English and Bashkir languages there can detect ​​similarities in structure of phraseological units. When analyzing there can detect these similarities in the structure, imagery and stylistic coloring:

Игратьсогнем – to play with fire – ут менән шаярыу

трудолюбивый, как пчела – busy as a bee – бал ҡорто кеүек шәп

жить как кошка с собакой – a cat and dog life – эт менән бесәй шикелле

Part of these phraseological units are international, and different languages pretend to its ancestral, that’s why there are considered itself it in every language.

The following expressions are quite similar in Russian, Bashkir and English languages:

Трудентолькопервыйшаг – it is the first step that costs – тәүге аҙымдар ауыр

искатьиголкувстогесена – look for a needle in a bottom of hay – бесән араһында энә эҙләү

глаза – зеркалодуши – the eyes are the mirror of he soul – күҙ - күңел көҙгөһө

Linguistic-scholars attract not only the facts of languages ​​in the present and past, but also the data of history, ethnography, reflecting the characteristics of people’s life, that helps to determine the origin of an expression.

The researcher must know the manners and customs of the nation, its religion and superstitions, as it helps to establish of origin of a phraseological units.

It turned out that the names of body parts are among the most often participating of words in the formation of phraseological units. There are symbolic character and images for carriers of Russian,Bashkir and English: apparently, using the names of body parts in a figurative sense, a person tries to convey better his thoughts and to make impressions greater what he has said. And it is the most interesting that the images are similar in languages​​.

One's hair stood on end – волосыдыбомвстали – сәстәр үрә тора

Not to see beyond the end of a nose – не видеть дальше собственного носа – танауҙан ары күрмәү

A tooth for a tooth – зуб за зуб – тешкә-теш менән

To have lost a tongue – языкпроглотить – тел йотоу

To have heart of gold – иметьзолотоесердце – йөрәге алтын кеше

To have heart of kind – иметь доброе сердце – изге тулы йөрәкле кеше

With a heavy heart – камень на сердце, с тяжелым сердцем – таш йөрәк

However, when translating from one language to another is often a change of imagery. It's so interesting phenomenon for English, Bashkir and Russian languages. Here there is a difference of images in the following phraseological units:

As two peas (как две “горошины”) – как две капли воды – ике тамсы кеүек

To be born with a silver spoon in the mouth (родиться с серебряной ложкой во рту) – родиться в сорочке – пәрҙә менән тыуыу

To make a mountain out of a molehill (делать из кротовины гору) – делать из мухи слона – юҡтан бар эшләү

Come to one’s senses - браться за ум – аҡылға таяныу

Cock one’s nose - задирать нос – танау сөйөү

To see through somebody - видетьнасквозь – үтә күреү

Get down to earth - спуститься с облаков на землю – күктән ергә төшөү

Swan-song - лебединая песня – торналар йыры

Good luck! - В добрый час! - Уңыштар!

My God – Господи – Эй, Хоҙайым

add fuel to the fire – подливать масло в огонь – майға ут ҡойоу

break one’s word – брать свои слова обратно – һүҙҙәрҙе кире алыу

breath a new life into someone – вдохнутьновуюжизнь – йән өрөү

bury one’s head in the sand – зарыть голову в песок – ер тишегенә инœеү

catch the eye – бросаться в глаза – күҙ ташлау

change hands – переходить из рук в руки – ҡулға-ҡул тотоноу

come down to earth – спуститься на землю – ете ҡат күктән төшөү

as a mule – упрям(ый) как осœел – ишәк кеүек иҫәр

he seventh heaven - на седьмом небе – ерҙең ете ҡатында

make hay while the sun shines —куй желœезо, пока горячо; тимерҙе ҡыҙыуында һуҡ;

out of the frying-pan into the fire — изогнядавполымя – ут-һыуҙы кисеү

держать язык за зубами - keep one`s tongue between one`s teeth - телде тешкә ҡыҫыу

проглотитьязык - the cat has got tongue – тел йотоу

на языке мёд - have an oily tongue – телœе балдан татлы

Thus, with the help of phraseological expressions that there are similar with the images in the Russian, Bashkir and English languages as well as which are not translated word for word, there are perceived rethought, amplified understanding of the language. Study phraseology is necessary link in learning of the language and culture of enhancing speech.

Correct and appropriate use of figurative speech gives it a unique identity, expression and accuracy. The study of phraseological units helps to understand the culture and life of people, to master a foreign language. General and distinctive features of figurative means native and English help to see the unity and identity of linguistic units, because the ratio of these images - a very interesting phenomenon in linguistics.

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2. Башкирско-русский словарь под ред. 3. Г. Ураксина. М.: Дигора, Русский язык, 1996. - 884 с.

3. Кунин А. В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь. М.: Русский язык, 1984.[1]

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©Сагинбаева