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История Classification of social nets neologisms in English, Bashkir, Russian languages
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D.I. Hizbullina

Kunakbaeva Iliuza

3rd year student

Scientific advisor

Associate Professor

Neologisms are perhaps the non-literary and the professional translator's biggest problem. New objects and processes are continually created in technology. New ideas and variations on feelings come from the media. Terms from the social sciences, slang, dialect coming into the mainstream of language, transferred words, make up the rest. It has been stated that each language acquire 3000 new words, annually, but in fact, neologisms can not be accurately quantified, since so many hover between acceptance and oblivion and many are short-lived, individual creations. In other words, Neologisms are new words, word-combinations or fixed phrases that appear in the language due to the development of social life, culture, science and engineering. New meanings of existing words are also accepted as neologisms. A problem of translation of new words ranks high on the list of challenges facing translators because such words are not readily found in ordinary dictionaries and even in the newest specialized dictionaries.

Ways of translating neologisms:

- Selection of an appropriate analogue in a target language

- Transcription and transliteration

- Loan translation and calque

- Explanatory translation and descriptive translation

Internet has greatly promoted language change. In today’s wired world, neologism appearingon the web also enters verbal communications in people’s real life, Internet, , has provided rapid sharing of information to 40 million registered users. It has greatly amplified the influence of neologism, by giving web browsers a chance to quote a neologist unlimited times to an infinite number of audience who might adapt intuitively this very expression at various degrees to suit certain contexts. In this process, a neologism gradually transforms into a real-life linguistic being.

Technical neologisms, or new technical terminologies, have long been considered the central difficulty in technical translation for it concerns with great efforts of the translator to make readers of the target language understand exactly the new translated concepts. What is more, together with such a rapid development of science and technology at present, new terminologies appear in unquantifiable numbers of nominate new objects, new process and new inventions.

Among the present leading technical branches, information technology ranks first. It has developed so rapidly and covered so many areas of our life that this is called the era of information technology. New software, techniques and objects are continually created and changed. So are new words and expressions in this field. In the global integration process, knowledge of information technology is of great importance to our country and it is often acquired through translated texts written in English. Therefore, this research will focus on the English -Vietnamese translation of information of technology neologisms.

In modern languages, one of the main sources of new words is the world wide web or Internet. A large number of neologisms appeared in connection with the creation of new social. The term "social network" is defined as "an interactive multiuser website whose content is filled by participants of a network. The most popular social networks in the world today are the “Facebook” and “Twitter. There was created "Vkontakte" (VK.com) is the largest social network in Runet.

We have found neologisms in "Vkontakte" in English and their translation into Bashkir and Russian languages. We divided the neologisms into the following groups.

1. Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form. The source can either be utterances(speech) or preexisting text in another writing system, although some linguists consider only the former to be transcription.

My photos - мои фотографии - фотоһүрәттәрем

My videos - мои видеозаписи - видеояҙмаларым

My music - мои аудиозаписи - аудиояҙмаларым

Documents - документы – документтар

Online – онлайн – онлайн

2. Transliteration is the conversion of a text from one script to another. Transliteration can form an essential part of transcription which converts text from one writing system into another. Transliteration is not concerned with representing the phonemics of the original: it only strives to represent the characters accurately.

Comments - комментарии – комментарийҙар, фекерҙәр

Service – сервисы – сервистар

Privacy - приватность – приватлылыҡ, шәхсилек

Compositions – композиции – композициялар

Regional – региональные – региональ

3. A calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language.

Recipient – получатель – алыусы

My profile - моя страница – сәхифәм

My friends - мои друзья – дуҫтарым

My messages - мои сообщения - хәбәрҙәрем

My communities - мои группы - төркөмдәрем

My news - мои новости - яңылыҡтарым

My feedback - мои ответы – яуаптарым

My settings - мои настройки - көйләүҙәрем

To be friend, to add friend- добавить в друзья – бер кеше менән дуҫлашырға

Like-нравится – миңә оҡшай

Generа l - общие - дөйөм

Security information - безопасность страницы – сәхифәгеҙҙең хәүефһеҙлеге

Activity history - история активности – әүҙемлек тарихы

Blacklist - черный список – ҡара исемлек

Wall settings - настройки стены – диуар көйләүҙәре

Blockedapps- заблокированные приложения – бикләнгән ҡушымталар

To attach - прикрепить – беркетергә

Updates - обновления - яңыртыуҙар

To delete profile - удалить страницу – сәхифәне юйҙырыу

To save - сохранить – һаҡларға

VK votes - голоса - тауыштар

Reminder - напоминание – иҫегеҙгә төшөрәбеҙ

Bookmarks - закладки – һаҡланмалар

Noteworthy pages - интересные страницы – ҡыҙыҡлы биттәр

To share - поделиться – уртаҡлашырға

Relationship status - семейное положение – ғаилә хәле

All friends - всœе друзья – барлыҡ дуҫтар

Managed community - управление группой – төркөм менән идара итеү

Communities - группы - төркөмдәр

To reply-ответить – яуап бирергә

To search-поиск - эҙләү

Post-запись - яҙма

Articles- статьи - мәҡәләләр

4. Descriptive translation (explain and predict the translation phenomena)

Conversations - диалоги – әңгәмәләр теҙмәһе

Followers - подписчики – яҙылыусылар

Tocomment-комментировать, оставить комментарий – фекер яҙыу

Recent photos-последние фотографии – көнүҙәк фотоһүрәттәр

Notifications - оповещения – мәғлүм итеүҙәр

Password - пароль – серһүҙ

To respond to request - ответить на запрос в друзья – дуҫтарға өҫтәргә

Friend request - запрос в друзья – дуҫлыҡ тәҡдиме

To remove from friend - удалисть со списка друзей – дуҫлыҡты өҙөү

To create community - создать группу – берләшмә асыу

The translation of neologisms in general is a translator’s most difficult task due to their characteristic of newness. Because they are new, the translator has to find ways to transfer the whole denotation of the terms into the target language so that receptors can understand. We hope that this research will make some contributions to the theory of translation neologisms.

Bibliography

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· Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. - М:1960

· Котелова Н.З. Неологизмы // Большой энциклопедический словарь. Языкознание / Под ред. В.Н. Ярцевой. М., 1998. — С. 331.

· Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь, Калька, с. 211

· См. Юшманов Н. В. Ключ к латинским письменностям земного шара. — М.—Л., 1941. — С. 19 (цит. по Гиляревский Р. С., Старостин Б. А. Введение // Иностранные имена и названия в русском тексте: Справочник. — 3-е, испр. и доп. — М.: Высшая школа, 1985. — С. 17.).

· russian-german.eu)

· http://www.vevivi.ru/best/Prichiny-i-istochniki-poyavleniya-neologizmov-v-internet-resursakh-ref197637.html

· http://teoria-perevoda-likhovid.narod.ru/index/0-10

· http://vk.com/settings

· http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki

· http://ru.scribd.com/doc/24781934/Neologism

· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_(linguistics)

· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transliteration

· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calque