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Part 1

Education Abroad

There are various types of higher educational establishments in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Universities, various teacher-training colleges, colleges of advanced technologies and technical colleges.

Some years ago the total number of the British Universities only reached 45: 33 of which were in England, 8 — in Scotland, the rest being in Wales and Northern Ireland.

The most known Universities of the UK are Oxford, Cambridge, Eton, the Universities of London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Manchester, Liverpool and some others.

The British Universities and colleges are relatively small compared to the American Universities including several colleges and professional schools. They comprise a number of faculties: theology, liberal arts, medicine, natural sciences, law, philosophy, engineering, agriculture, economy and some others.

Admission to the Universities and colleges is by examinations and selection. The basic teaching principle is combining lectures and tutorials. Many British Universities as well as colleges extensively use numerous radio and TV programs in their teaching process.

The academic year consists of 3 terms. Vacations, as a rule, are at Christmas, on Easter and in summer, but they are mostly the periods for individual studies.

The Universities of the United Kingdom grant the following degrees to their graduates:

1) Bachelor degree — after a three-year course of studies and results of the examinations.

2) Master degree — after a further one/two-year course of studies.

3) Doctor degree usually awarded for research and thesis. Research is an important feature of the University work. Many

instructors/lecturers, postgraduates and senior students are engaged in research.

The British Government encourages the country Universities and colleges to cooperate closely with industry to link both academic and commercial interests.

Part 2

The USA Universities and colleges are divided into public and private. At present there are over 2000 higher educational institu­tions in the United States of America. Among them 1200 are private, the rest being public.

It is more prestigious to get a degree at a private college or at a private University where the quality of education is always better and this can make a difference in the job market later on.

Almost half of all American Universities and colleges are liberal arts colleges and Universities, training their students in languages, law, history, philosophy, etc. The rest ones are professional.

All American Universities and colleges do not keep to any coordinate system or single standard program. Their students are offered a great variety of curriculums in different fields of knowledge. The main task of the USA Universities and colleges is to develop the students' creative potential and to involve them into individual work or research.

Among the USA largest and most known Universities there are such ones, as: Harvard (the US oldest University, 1636), Yale, Columbia, the Universities of Washington, New York, Princeton, California, Michigan, Chicago, Stanford, Boston and some others.

A distinctive feature of all American Universities and colleges is in their two levels. The first level comprises a four-year course of studies leading to a Bachelor degree. During the first two years the US freshmen and sophomores get general education: humanities, social sciences and culture. The last two years of the third- and fourth-year students are devoted to their major disciplines. The advanced degrees (Master or Doctor) can be obtained during the second level.

The US Universities and colleges may also award the Honorary and Earned degrees for distinguished public services and outstanding creative works. The highest rank in the USA is that of Full Professor.

Higher education in the United States is very expensive. Only 1 of 4 American families can afford it for its children. Nowadays the most expensive higher educational establishments in the USA are Harvard, Yale, Columbia and some others. Only children of the American elite can study there, for their fees are about 22 000-25 000 $ a year. As a rule, their graduates occupy the highest posts in the American Society, Government and Forces.


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