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История I. Language and Extralinguistic World
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ВЫВОД

Радикальные изменения экономической жизни, роль и приоритетность деятельности предприятий в экономическом развитии страны диктуют крайне важность их переориентации на рыночные отношения. В этой связи особое место отводится перестройке сбытовой политики предприятий и факторам, определяющим ее содержание.

В результате выполненной курсовой работы мы видим анализ внутренней и внешней среды организации и разработанную стратегию маркетинга турбинного оборудования на примере научно-производственного объединœения «Турбоатом». Определœены и исследованы главные цели, объекты и методы маркетинговых исследований. Ими являются:

1) рыночная конъюнктура;

2) спрос;

3) емкость рынка;

4) конкурентоспособность цены продукции;

5) конкуренты;

6) каналы сбыта;

7) личные продажи;

8) сервисное обслуживание;

9) качество продукции;

10) законодательная база.

В данном курсовом проекте:

1) проведён технико-экономический анализ хозяйственной деятельности, а также анализ сложившейся ситуации на ОАО / С 2014 г. Публичное акционерное общество/ «Турбоатом»;

2) разработано построение сбытовой политики объединœения с учетом конкуренции и спроса на продукцию;

Данные взятые для открытой печати свидетельствуют, что на данном этапе положение ОАО / С 2014 г. Публичное акционерное общество/ «Турбоатом» характеризуется слабым, но всœе же некоторым ростом объемов производства и реализации энергооборудования, хотя предприятие работает всœего на 42 % от своей мощности. Сбытовая деятельность всœе более ориентируется на внешние рынки (Латинская Америка, Азия, Ближний Восток, Европа, СНГ) где пользуются возрастающим спросом гидравлические турбины. Спрос на турбинное оборудование НПО обеспечивается более низкими ценами и высоким качеством продукции. Цены в основном устанавливаются методом «средние издержки производства плюс 25 % прибыли», на рынках дальнего зарубежья действуют трансфертные цены. Все заказы объединœение получает в бескомпромиссной конкурентной борьбе, как правило, на основе тендерных торгов. Лидерами международного рынка энергооборудования являются фирмы Японии и США, которые предъявляют к конкурентоспособности своей продукции жесткие требования.

Что касается рынка Украины и стран СНГ, то здесь сбытовая деятельность ведется, но основе взаимозачетов и бартерных сделок. Данная ситуация имеет место вследствие неплатежеспособности клиентов НПО «Турбоатом».

Маркетинговая политика ОАО / С 2014 г. Публичное акционерное общество/ «Турбоатом» должна иметь следующие основные направления:

1) техническое перевооружение (модернизация) ТЭС, ГЭС, АЭС Украины и странСНГ;

2) выпуск паровых, гидравлических, газовых и парогазовых станций, строящихся в Украинœе, странах СНГ и дальнего зарубежья;

3) замена и реконструкция турбин на ТЭС Украины и России;

4) выпуск микро-, мини и гидротурбин малой мощности для Украины, замена паровых турбин малой мощности на металлургических и сахарных заводах и ТЭЦ Украины;

5) выпуск гидрозатворов для ГЭС Украины, стран СНГ и дальнего зарубежья (Преимущественно развивающихся и аграрных стран)

Список использованной литературы:

1. “Основы менеджмента .” Мескон М. Москва 2013ᴦ.

2. “Предпринимательство : Основной курс.” Бусыгин А.В.Москва

3.“Менеджмент .” Герчикова В.Н. Москва -2013 издательское общество “Юнити.”

4. Карпенко Ю. Маркетинговая концепция как базовый фактор

успеха / Бизнес Информ. - 1998.-№ 9 - с.87-88.

5. Завьялов П.С., Демидов В.Е. Формула успеха: маркетинᴦ. - Москва:

Международные отношения, 1991. —414 с.

6. Котлер Ф. Основы маркетинга / Пер. с англ. - Москва: Прогресс, 1992. -736с.

7.Ухачевич Я. Роль государства в обеспечении конкуренто-способности продукции / Экономика Украины. - 2008.-№19 - с.82-83.

8. Перерва П. Г. Управление маркетингом на машиностроительном предприятии - Харьков: Основа, - 288 с.

9. Демидов В.Е., Завьялов П.С., Кретов И.И. и др. Маркетинг во внешнеэкономической деятельности. - Москва, 1992. - 244 с.

10. Мышко С. Экспортный потенциал Украины / Бизнес Информ. - 2008.-№ 11 - с.33-34.

11. Баланс ОАО / С 2014 г. Публичное акционерное общество/ «ТУРБОАТОМ» за 2010-2013 год

12. Отчет о фин. результатах ОАО / С 2014 г. Публичное акционерное общество/ «ТУРБОАТОМ» за 2012-2013 год

13. Устав ОАО / С 2014 г. Публичное акционерное общество/ «ТУРБОАТОМ»

14. [Интернет ресурс] http://www.turboatom.com.ua/ (2013)

15. Фритцше Д.Д. Этика бизнеса. – М., 2012. – 327 с

16. [Интернет ресурс] http://www.unian.net/news/602689-uroven-bezrabotitsyi-v-ukraine-nije-srednih-pokazateley-v-es-yanukovich.html

A language is created and is developing now as the necessity of communication constantly accompanies the labour and daily life of people, and its satisfaction turns out to be necessary one. Therefore, language, being a means of communication, was and still remains a permanent ally and helper of a man in his labour activity and his life.

The labour activity of people is carried out at obligatory participation of language. And clearly that neither mastering labour experience, nor work of thought are impossible without application of language that permits to accomplish reading books, listening to the lectures, communicating, exchanging thoughts etc.

More obvious for understanding is the role of language in the development of science, fiction literature, educational activity of different societies. It is impossible to develop science without support of what was already attained and without expressing and fixing the work of thought in the word.

Nowadays collaboration with other countries in various areas of life such as industry, culture, science and education etc., requires knowledge of features of their culture and traditions. The culture as an aggregate of the material and spiritual values created by human society includes a language, science, knowledge, education etc. Language is not only a source of acquisition of knowledge; it enables to touch the culture of the other peoples and their mentality. The national and cultural specific of language communication consists of the system of factors, which condition a difference in organization, functions and means of the communicative processes that are the characteristic feature of the given national and cultural community.

These factors are added to the processes of intercourse at the different levels of organization, and have a different nature, but in the processes of intercourse they are interrelated with the other factors, that condition and form these processes, foremost with the linguistic factors properly, psycholinguistic and general linguistic ones. A culture includes regulating elements such as ideals, moral norms, traditions, etc. The special part in this belongs to a language and the other linguistic systems, as intercourse is the means of passing the social experience of an individual. The national specific of intercourse is represented in both social co-operation of interlocutors and in the language devices that serve it.

A text in the sign of definite culture is in the difficult relations with the cultural context of the past, present and future. Studying the co-operation of different texts cultural dialogs are researched, as well as features of their construction. Many-leveled study includes cognitive, emotional, social images of the representatives of the lingvocultural community.

Human consciousness and language form unity. In their existence they suppose each other, as internal, logically designed ideal content supposes the external material form. A language is direct activity of thought and consciousness. It participates in the process of cognitive activity as its perceptible basis or instrument. Human consciousness is not only revealed, but formed by a language as well. Our thoughts are built in accordance with our language and must correspond to it. On the contrary, people organize our speech in accordance with logic of our thought. The connection between consciousness and language is not mechanical, but organic one. They cannot be separated without destructing each other.

By means of the language the transference from perception and presentations to notions take place. In speech a person fixes his thoughts, senses and owing to it has a possibility to subject them to the analysis as an ideal object out of him. Expressing the thoughts and senses, a person gets more distinctly the idea of them. It is spoken not for nothing that if there appeared a thought, it is necessary to be told, then it will be clearer, and the foolishness concluded in it will become more obvious. A language and consciousness are single. In this unity the consciousness and thought are the determining parts, as being the reflection of reality it «models» forms and dictates the laws of linguistic existence. Through consciousness and practice the structure of language finally reflects the structure of being though in the modified form. But the unity is no identity, that’s why consciousness reflects reality, and a language designates it and expresses in thoughts.

A language and consciousness form contradictory unity. A language affects consciousness and its historically formed norms that are specific to the every nation shade in different signs in one and the same object. For example, style of thought in the German philosophical culture differs from the French one that to a certain extent relies on the features of national languages of these nations. However the dependence of thought on a language is not absolute, as thought is determined mainly by the connections with reality and a language can partly modify a form and style of thought.

A language affects consciousness and thought in that relation that it gives some forcedness to thought and carries out a kind of «tyranny» over thought, sends its motion to the channels of linguistic forms, as though driving them in the general scopes that are changeable, individually unique, emotionally coloured thoughts.

A man gets information not only by the ordinary language, but by means of the most various events of the outer world as well. For example, the smoke signals that a fire burns somewhere. But this smoke gains character of conventional sign, if people beforehand agreed about what it would mean, for example, that «the dinner is ready» etc. Language sign is a material object, process, and action etc. accomplishing the role of representative of something in the intercourse and used for acquisition, storage, transformation and transference of information.

The sign systems appeared and are developing as a material form, in which consciousness and thought are carried out, informative processes are realized in the society and in technique in the contemporary world. Under the meaning of signs the information about things, properties and relations, which are passed with their help is meant. The meaning is en expression of the objective reality in the material form of a sign. It includes perceptible and emotional components as well as motives, requests etc. that belong to the area of human mentality.

The development of the sign systems is determined by the necessities of science, technique, art, public practice etc. The use of the special symbolism, especially artificial systems, formulas, creates pre-eminences for the development of science. For example, using the signs from which the formulas are made gives the possibility to fix connections of thought and to carry out an intercourse in the international scale. A language and all the richest signed and symbolic spheres have no self-sufficient sense. All the forces of verbal intercourse, as the thought is possible only on the basis of a language, are aimed on communication in the world.

Thus, the cognition of regularities of the world and mental development of a person are accomplished by mastering the knowledge produced by humanity in the process of its social development. In this sense a language is a mean of fixing and passing the achievements of human culture science, art etc. across generations.

II. Language as a Means of Communication

Passing the information in the process of communication is provided by means of a language as the basic, special instrument of human intercourse, and by non-language means as well.

A language as a means of communication has originated and formed historically in the process of development of the human society as a result of its necessities. The nature of language is of a sign one. Every word is a sign that is correlated with the objects of the outside world in a particular way. The corresponding meaning clear for understanding to the community, which uses it, was fixed to each word of a language historically.

The development of social and technical progress of a mankind caused the expansion of human necessities that resulted in the development and improvement of a language as a means of communication. The vocabularies and perfect grammatical structure of a language of the modern civilized society give possibility to pass any kind of information and the great number of its nuances and details of an object of information.

Language is a means of accumulating and passing the public experience. Owing to the communication by means of a language of reflecting the outer reality in the consciousness of one person is added by information from the other persons’ consciousness that leads to growing possibilities for information exchange.

Verbal intercourse by means of a word is the basic and the most perfect form of human communication. The level of language mastering, richness and culture of linguistic utterance determine possibilities and effectiveness of communication for each concrete person.

Parallel to a language as a means of communication by words, the non-language means such as gestures, mimicry, intonation, pauses, manners etc. are widely used. Communication as an acting process of the direct intercourse of interlocutors reveals emotion of those, who communicates, forming the non-verbal aspect of exchanging information.

The means of non-verbal communication such as «a language of senses» are the product of public development of human society, and considerably strengthen the semantic effect of verbal communication, and in particular cases can replace it.

It is known, for example, that silence sometimes is more eloquent and expressive, than the words and people can understand the content of information that is out of verbal utterance by exchanging glances.

Thus, language is a mirror of the outer world that represents reality and creates the world picture that is specific and unique for every language and, accordingly, for each nation, ethnic group and language community that uses the given language as a means of communication. Overcoming the linguistic barrier is not enough for providing the efficiency of intercourse between the representatives of the different cultures. It is necessary to overcome the cultural barrier as well. There are so called nationally biased components of cultures that create the problems of intercultural communication.

The language saves cultural values in a vocabulary, grammar, phraseology, proverbs, sayings, folklore, fiction and scientific literature, the forms of the written and verbal communication etc.

The language is a transmitter of culture that passes treasures of the national culture saved in it across the generations. Mastering the native language people accumulate the generalized cultural experience of the previous generations.

The language is an instrument of culture. It forms personality of a man, by vision of world, mentality, attitude toward people etc., through the culture, that uses the given language as a means of intercourse.

The language does not exist out of culture as the socially inherited aggregate of practical skills and ideas characterizes our way of life. As one of the types of human activity, a language turns out to be a component part of the culture conditioned as an aggregate of results of human activity in different areas of life such as production, public relationships etc. However, as a form of existence of thought and as a means of intercourse a language is in one row with culture.

Language is a mighty public instrument that forms nation through saving and passing the culture, traditions, and public consciousness of definite linguistic communities. As a branch of science of a language, directly related to the study of culture, lingvoculture acquires wide spreading.

Lingvocultureis a new philological discipline that studies the aggregate of cultural values definitely organized, explores the communicative processes of appearing and perceiving a language, the experience of linguistic personality and national mentality etc.

The native speaker owns his specific features. In the intercultural communication it is necessary to take into account the features of the national character of interlocutors, the specific of their emotional state and national specific features of their thought. That is why it is impossible to master a language as a means of communication without knowing the world of the language studied. It can be learned as a method of saving and passing the cultural values. A language exists in the world of its native speakers, and mastering it without knowing this world makes disable using this language as a means of communication. The study of the native speakers’ world is directed to the help in understanding the features of language using, additional value loading, political, cultural, historical nationally biased lexicon, as in the basis of any communication, that is in the basis of linguistic intercourse, lies «mutual code», mutual knowledge of vocabulary conditioned nationally, knowledge of the subject of communication between the participants of intercourse.

Thus, a language is determined as a means of human communication. This is one of the numerous possible determinations of language and is the main one as it does not characterize language from the point of its organization, structure etc, but from the point of view it is intended for.

A language is understood as a system of signs that serves a means of human communication, cogitative activity, the method of expression of person’s consciousness, storage and passing of information across generations. Language is produced by a society and is a form of reflection of its public life in the public consciousness of people. A language, formed in the process of human communication, is the product of social and historical development at the same time. One of the phenomena of language is that everybody finds the already existing language that is spoken at, and masters it in the process of own development. However, being a native language speaker, a person becomes the potential source of development and modernization of language he owns.

A language is enough difficult formation. Every language has foremost the definite system of meaningful words that is called the lexical composition of a language. In addition, a language has the particular system of different forms of words and word-combinations that makes the grammar of it, and a definite sound, or phonetic composition peculiar to the concrete language.

The basic functions of a language are:

1) A means of existing, passing and mastering the social and historical experience.

2) A means of communication.

3) An instrument of intellectual activity (perception, memory, thought, imagination etc).

Executing the first function, a language serves a means of coding information about the properties of objects and phenomena studied.

By means of a language the information about the outer world and human themselves, got from the former generations, becomes property of the next ones. Accomplishing the function of communicative means, a language allows influencing on interlocutors. The influence can be direct if a person directly point on what is necessary to do or indirect if a person reveals information important for his interlocutor’s activity to be oriented on immediately and in the proper situation. The function of a language as an instrument of intellectual activity is foremost connected with the condition that executing any activity a person consciously plans the actions. A language is the basic instrument of planning of intellectual activity and solving the cogitative tasks.

If a language is the system of signs and symbols, then a speech is the process of language usage. A speech is the form of human communication by means of language formed historically. The conversation itself is carried out by the rule of concrete language (Ukrainian, English etc.). Both a speech and a language make difficult dialectical unity. A speech is carried out by the rules of a language, and at the same time under influence of some factors that change and perfect a language, for example, under influence of public practice, scientific development etc. Mastering knowledge and forming consciousness of a person becomes impossible without a speech. If words and sentences are considered to be the basic structural units of a language, then they are utterances as units of sense in the conversation.

The large meaning for the further analysis of speech has the determination of its functions. The speech is considered to be a process of human communication and a mechanism of cogitative activity as well. Thus, there are two basic interrelated functions of speech:

1) Communicative function or function of human intercourse.

2) Speech intellectual function or function of thought.

Within the framework of communicative function it is accepted to distinguish the functions of report and motivation to action. A speech becomes the form of expression of thought owing to its peculiarity to define the objects, phenomena, actions, qualities etc. In this case the question is about the semantic function of speech.

There are several types of speech, such as external and internal, oral and written ones.

Oral speech is a verbal intercourse by language means that is perceived orally. The basic features of verbal speech are that the separate components of speech report are generated and perceived consistently. The processes of generation of verbal speech include the links of orientation, simultaneous planning, speech realization and control. Verbal speech is divided into a monologue and dialogic ones.

The written speech is a verbal intercourse by written texts. The written speech does not differ from oral speech only by using graphic arts, but in the grammatical and stylistic relation as well. It is the enough difficult compositional and structural organization, which must be specially mastered that is peculiar to the written speech.

The internal speech is a soundless verbal process, i.e. it can be presented in the form of different types of using a language out of process of the real communication. There are a few types of the internal speech. Above all things this is the internal saying or «speech to oneself». This type of speech saves the structure of external speech, but is deprived of phonation and is typical, for example, for solving tasks in the difficult conditions etc. The second type is the internal speech properly as a means of thought. In this case it uses specific units and has a specific structure. The third type of the internal speech can be presented in a form of so-called internal programming that is forming and fixing the intention of the verbal utterance, the whole text and its parts in the specific units.

Thus, a language is understood as a system of conditional symbols by which the combinations of sounds that have a particular meaning and sense for people are passed. The speech appears as a process of intercourse by means of language.

III. Translation Definitions

Undoubtedly, translation is the very ancient type of human activity. As soon as the groups of people, the languages of which differed from each other, appeared in history of mankind, another group of people who helped to accomplish communication between «the different language communities» appeared as well. With the rise of the written language the translators who were engaged in translating different texts of official, religious and business character joined to the first interpreters. From the whole beginning translation accomplished a major social function, making the interlingual communication between people possible. The distribution of the written translations opened a wide access to cultural achievements of the other nations and did co-operation and mutual enrichment of literatures and cultures possible. Knowing the foreign languages allow reading books in the original but even one foreign language is not easy to be mastered.

Translation is the difficult and many-sided type of human activity. Although it is usually spoken about translation «from one language into the other one», but, in reality, there is not simply replacement of one language by another one in the process of translation. Different cultures, personalities, mentalities, literatures, ages, traditions etc. find expression in translation.

Translation as an unilateral and two-phases process of interlingual and intercultural communication, at which on the basis of the purposeful analysis of the primary text the second text is created, that substitutes the primary text in the other linguistic and cultural environment. The process, which is characterized by setting on the passing the communicative effect of the primary text, is partly modified by divergences between two languages, two cultures and two communicative situations. Such notions as «language and social structure» and «language and culture» are connected with translation.

The basic theoretical notions of translation include faithfulness of translation and the pragmatic adaptation unavoidably related to it. The translation carried out at the level necessary and sufficient for the transmission of unchanging plan of content at observing norms of language of translation is called faithful translation. The faithfulness of translation finds support in the real practice of translation that often does not assume the exhaustive passing the communicative and functional content of the text. It is reasoned by the compromise character that the decision accepted by a translator often has.

The achievement of translating faithfulness is connected with some losses of the sense in content of the text translated. The translation, where all the functions included in it in the rank with functional features of the text are reproduced, can be considered optimal one. The determination «functional features» defines the properties of utterance (it is the function that serves for description of objects and connection between them) and its expressive function (it is the function that expresses the attitude of a speaker towards the utterance).

However, such translation is not always possible in practice. A translator quite often has to search the special devices for the transmission of semantic and stylistic constituents of the source language text. A pragmatic equivalence between an original text and its translation is achieved in such case that determines the communicative effect properly.

The basic requirements set up to a translation can be represented in the whole chart below:

1) Translation must pass the words of the source language text.

2) Translation must pass the thoughts of the source language text.

3) Translation must be read as the source language text.

4) Translation must be read as the target language text.

5) Translation must reflect the style of the source language text.

6) Translation must reflect the style of a translator.

7) Translation must be read as a work modern to the source language text.

8) Translation must be read as a work modern to the translator.

9) Translation can assume additions and omissions.