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История II.2. Generalization.
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II.1. Specification.

The specification is the replacement of the words or word-combinations of the source language with more wide meaning by the words or word-combinations of the target language with narrower meaning. As a rule, the greater specification is peculiar to the vocabulary of the Ukrainian language, than to the corresponding proper lexical units of the English one.

The specification can be linguistic and contextual one. At linguistic specification the replacement of a word with the wide meaning by a word with narrower meaning is conditioned by the divergences in the structure of two languages, in particular, by either the absence of the lexical unit of the target language, that have as wide meaning, as the lexical unit of the source language, or divergences in their stylistic descriptions, or requirements of grammatical order (by the necessity of syntactic transformation of a sentence, in particular, replacements of the nominal predicate by the verbal one).

The verbs of motion and verbs of speech are specified during translation into Ukrainian, such as «be, have, get, take, give, make, say, come, go» etc. For example:

The by-election victory went to the Labour candidate. На додаткових виборах перемога дісталась лейбористам (Перемогу отримав кандидат від лейбористської партії).
The rain came in torrents. Полив сильний дощ.
«So what?» – I said. «Ну так що ж?» – спитав я.
Не told me to come right over, if I felt like it. Звелів хоч зараз приходити, якщо потрібно.

These are the examples of transformation of the Ukrainian nominal predicate into English verbal one, which usually requires specification of verb «to be», for example:

Не is at school Він навчається у школі.
Не is in the Army. Він служить в армії.
The concert was on Sunday. Концерт відбувся в неділю.

In regard to the contextual specification, it is conditioned by the factors of the given concrete context, most frequently, by the stylistic consideration, as, for example, the necessity of completeness of phrase, aspiration to evade the repetitions, to attain a greater figurativeness etc. For example:

You could hear him putting away his toilet articles. Було чутно, як він прибирає мильниці і щітки.

The device of generalization is opposed to specification, as it consists in replacement of the particular by the general one, the specific notion by the gender one. During translation from English into Ukrainian it is used much rarer, than a specification. It is related to the feature of the English vocabulary.

The words of this language have abstract character more frequently, than the Ukrainian words that belong to the same notion. For example:

Не comes over and visits me practically every weekend. Він часто до мене приїжджає, майже кожного тижня.
The bird went up and circled again. Орел піднявся вище і знову почав робити кола.

II.3. The method of lexical addition.

Both lexical and grammatical transformations quite often require bringing the additional words in. Introduction of additional words is conditioned by the range of reasons, such as by distinctions in the structure of a sentence and by the circumstance that more compressed English sentences require more detailed expression of thought in the Ukrainian language. The absence of the corresponding word or proper lexical and semantic variant of the given word is the reason of introduction of additional words during translation as well. For example:

«Wouldn’t you like a cup of hot chocolate before you go?» «Чи не вип’єш чашку гарячого шоколаду на дорогу
The conductor came around for old Mrs Morrow’s ticket. Увійшов кондуктор перевіряти білет у місіс Морроу.

Additions in the process of translation can be caused by the other reasons too. One of them is the syntactic reorganization of the structure of a sentence during translation, when it is sometimes required to bring these or the other elements in sentence. So, it is sometimes necessary to bring the subject in that is absent if the source language text, during translation into English for the transmission of «the communicative partition of a sentence». For example:

In 1958 that orchestra made its first recordings. В 1958 році були зроблені перші записи.

The noun-subject, added in the English sentences, is determined by the factors of wide context. It is possible to evade additions in these cases, but it would demand the use of passive construction in translation, that would make heavier the English text stylistically.

Frequently, the lexical additions are conditioned by the necessity of transmission in the text of translation of the meanings expressed in the original text by the grammatical devices, for example, at the transmission of the English plural forms of nouns that have no this form in Ukrainian. For example:

Workers of all industries Робітники всіх галузей промисловості
Defenses Оборонні споруди
There are other philosophies of the past which give strong support to the Humanist position. Існують і інші філософські напрями (або: течії, теорії) минулого, які надають рішучу підтримку концепції гуманізму.

The special difficulty is presented by the attributive combinations that consist of combinations of «noun + noun», and «adjective + noun» as well. The latter has a terminology character. For example:

Pay claim (pay offer) Вимога (пропозиція) підвищити заробітну плату
Wage strike Страйк з вимогою підвищення заробітної плати
Oil countries Країни – виробники нафти

The correct choice of the semantic component that is added into Ukrainian translation requires knowledge of extralinguistic factors. Sometimes additions turn out to by conditioned by the stylistic considerations properly. For example: