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История II.5. The method of semantic development.
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II.4. The method of omission.

The omission is the phenomenon opposite to addition. During translation the words that are semantically redundant from the point of their semantic content are usually subjected to omission. One of the examples of abundance is the use of the so-called «pair synonyms» that are peculiar to all the styles of the written speech. It is not peculiar to the Ukrainian language, that’s why it is necessary to use omission during translation. For example:

Just and equitable treatment Справедливе відношення
Brave and courageous Хоробрий
Regular and normal Звичайний

Certainly, the abundant elements in a text don’t come to «the pair synonyms» only. For example:

So I paid my check and all. Then I left the bar and went out where the telephones were. Я розплатився і пішов до телœефонних автоматів.

In the English text the words «left» and «bar» are semantically abundant, as the action defined is implied by the next verb «went out», that’s why the omission is used in the Ukrainian translation (accompanied by the union of a sentence with the previous one). For example:

Winter rains in the Jordan are violent, while they last. Взимку в долині Йордану бувають страшні зливи.

In the given example the whole English sentence is abundant one from the point of Ukrainian language view. The removal of semantically abundant elements of the source language text give a possibility to a translator to carry out that is called «the compression of a text», i.e. shortening of its general volume.

The omission is caused not only by aspiration to the removal of speech abundance. It can have the other reasons, in particular, the tendency to maximal specification that is typical for English and is expressed in the use of numerals, as well as the names of measures and scales where it is not motivated by the semantic factors, sometimes requires to use omissions. For example:

About a gallon of water was dripping down my neck, getting all over my collar and tie... Вода с голови лилась за комір, вся краватка промокла, весь комір...

The method of semantic development consists in replacement of dictionary accordance by the contextual, lexically one related to it during translation. A metaphor and metonymy belongs to the method of semantic development.

If to take into account that all significant parts are divided into three categories such as objects, processes and signs, then the object can be replaced by its sign, the process by an object, the sign by an object or process etc. for the transmission of the same content by the devices of the other language. The process means an action or state. It is possible to define the six following variants:

The reason The process The result
1. The replacement of the process by its reason
2. The replacement of the process by its result
3. The replacement of the reason by the process
4. The replacement of the reason its result
5. The replacement of the result by its reason
6. The replacement of the result by a process.

For example:

«I don’t think she’s living here at the moment. Her bed wasn’t slept in». Я гадаю, вона не живе в цьому місці в даний час. Її постіль не зім’ята.

A talker entered the room and saw that a bed she usually makes is not crumpled. Instead of the direct translation «вона не спала у своєму ліжку» the result is marked out. A process is replaced by the result.

The antonymous translation is the replacement of some notion that is expressed in the source language text, by the opposite notion in translation with the corresponding reorganization of all the utterance for saving of invariable plan of the content. For example:

Stradlater didn’t say anything. Стредлейтер промовчав.
I’m not kidding. Я вам серйозно кажу.

In the first sentence the English negative construction is passed by the Ukrainian affirmative one, and the verb «to say» is replaced by its Ukrainian antonym «промовчати».

In the second sentence the replacement of negative construction by the affirmative one and replacement of expression «to be kidding» that is in Ukrainian «жартувати» by its antonym «серйозно казати» take place. Such double replacement gives the same meaning of a sentence in the whole.

The application of antonymous translation at the transmission of English construction «not... until» into Ukrainian is typical. For example:

They gave me the wrong book, and I didn’t notice it till I got back to my room. Я лише вдома помітила, що мені дали не ту книгу.
I didn’t think of it till we went half-way through the park. Згадав я про це, коли ми вже проїхали майже весь парк.

It is necessary to understand that the negation in English is expressed through the preposition «without» as well:

Не never met him afterwards without asking him... Після цього він кожного разу при зустрічі питав його...

The special variety of antonymous translation is the replacement of an adjective or adverb in a comparative or superlative degree by an adjective or adverb in a positive degree or vice versa, that is accompanied by the replacement of affirmative construction into the negative one (or vice versa). For example: