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История II.7. The method of compensation.
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II.6. The method of integral transformation.

Integral transformation is the variety of semantic development. The method of integral transformation can be briefly defined as transformation of a separate word or even the whole sentence. Besides, the transformation does not take place by elements, but integrally.

It is observed in regard to the other methods of lexical transformations. For example:

Never mind. Нічого, не турбуйтесь, не звертайте уваги.
Forget it. Не варто про це говорити.
Well done! Браво! Молодець!

The examples above show that these colloquial correspondences have no general semantic components, and possess a different internal form and pass one and the same content by the devices of the different languages as well. The specific of colloquial speech more frequently requires integral transformation during translation.

Translation of combination «forget it!» in the above mentioned example is done by the device of semantic development when the Ukrainian correspondence, of course, is replacement of an action itself («forget about it») by its reason (it is not necessary to speak about it). This replacement can be defined more precisely as the method of antonymous translation.

However, the absence of general components between English combination of words and its Ukrainian correspondence gives a right to consider that it is produced by integral transformation.

What was said above explains in a sufficient extent, why the integral transformation serves the universal device of translation of Phraseological units. For example:

Bird of a feather flock together. Рибак рибака бачить здалеку.

The figurative replacement of the expression by integral transformation, undoubtedly, is the important condition of achievement of faithful translation.

Compensation in translation is the replacement of the inexpressible element of the source language text by any other device, which passes the same information, not necessarily in the same place of a text than in the original text is. For example:

«Why don’t you write a good thrilling detective story?» – she asked. «Me?» exclaimed Mrs Albert Forrester… «Чому б вам не написати детективний роман, такий, щоб дух перехоплювало?» «Що?» – вигукнула місіс Форестер.

In the original text the Forrester missis uses in elliptic sentence the form of the so-called objective case of the pronoun «me» in place of «I», that is considered to be the grammatical negligence, in spite of this form has already became a norm in a colloquial literary language.

As there is nothing similar in Ukrainian in the system of personal pronouns, the necessity to use compensation appears. In the example above, the colloquial form is used by the replacement of the personal pronoun into interrogative one, thus passing the same information in the original text and its translation, in spite of using the other devices. For example:

You could tell he was very ashamed of his parents and all, because they said «he don’t» and «she don’t» and stuff like that... Одразу було видно, що він соромиться своїх батьків, тому що вони говорили «хочуть», «хочете», і всœе в такому роді...

As it is seen from examples, compensation is often used especially where it is necessary to pass the interlinguistic meaning that characterize these or the other linguistic features of the original text such as the dialectal colouring, mistakes or individual features of speech, puns, play on words etc., as well as it is impossible to find direct correspondence of the source language unit in the target language.

The methods of integral transformation and compensation expressly illustrate, that the equivalence of translation is not provided at the level of the separate elements of a text (in particular, at level of words), but at the level of the whole text translated. In other words, there are untranslatable details, but there are no untranslatable texts. All lexical transformations require a sense of proportion and thorough knowledge of the text translated and the situation related to it from a translator.

Thus, the presence of a plenty of words of wide, abstract meaning in English, distinctions in the meaning of words, the conciseness of expression, possible in English owing to the presence of a number of grammatical structures and forms, requires introduction of additional words and even sentences during translation. However, some distinctions in the daily use cause the omissions of separate elements of English sentence during translation into Ukrainian. All it explains the wide use of lexical transformations during translation.

The basic types of the lexical transformations applied in the process of translation with participation of source and target languages include the following translating devices:

1) Translating transcription and transliteration.

2) Replication, lexical and semantic replacements (specification, generalization, semantic development etc).

Transcription and transliteration are the methods of translation of lexical unit of the source language text by the recreation of its form by target language letters. The sound form of a foreign word is reproduced at transcription. Transliteration implies the reproduction of the graphic form (letter composition).

The leading method in modern practice of translation is transcription with saving some elements of transliteration. Thus, as phonetic and graphic systems of languages considerably differ from each other, the transmission of form of the source language word in the language of translation is always conditional and approximate. For example:

Аbsurdist Абсурдист (автор твору абсурду)
Skateboarding Скейтбординг (катання на роликовій дошці)

For each pair of languages the rules of transmission of sound composition of the source language word are developed, and the cases of saving the elements of transliteration and traditional exceptions from the rules presently accepted are indicated.

In English-Ukrainian translations the elements of transliteration that are most frequently met at using transcription consist, mainly, in transliteration of consonants and reduced vowels, transmission of double consonants between vowels and at the end of words after vowels, saving some features of word orthography that allows to approach sounding of a word in translation to the already known standards, for example:

Dorset Дорсет
Campbell Кемпбел
Boss Бос
Columbia Колумбія

The traditional exceptions mainly concern translations of names of historical personalities and some place-names, for example:

Charles I Карл I
William III Вiльгельм III
Edinborough Единбург

Replication is the method of translation of lexical unit of the source language text by replacement of its component parts such as morphemes or words (in the case of steady word-combinations) by their lexical correspondences in the target language.

The essence of replication consists in creation of a new word or word-combination in the target language that copies the structure of the initial lexical unit.

Lexical and semantic replacements are the method of translation of lexical units of the source language text by the use of the target language units, the meaning of which does not coincide with the meanings of initial units in translation, but can be derived from them by using the definite type of logical transformations.

The basic types of similar replacements are specification, generalization and semantic development of the meaning of the source language unit.

Specification means the replacement of a word or word-combination of the source language text with wider objective and logical meaning by a word or word-combination of the target language with narrower meaning. As a result of application of this transformation the correspondence created and initial lexical unit turn out to be in the logical relations of inclusion when the source language unit expresses a gender notion, and the target language unit is included in its specific notion, for example:

Dinny waited in а corridor, which smelled of disinfectant. Діні чекала в коридорі, що пропах карболкою.
He was at the ceremony. Він був присутнім на церемонії.

In a number of cases the application of specification is conditioned by the absence of a word with a wide meaning in the target language. Thus, the English noun «thing» has very abstract meaning («an entity of any kind») and is always translated by specification into Ukrainian as an object, business, fact, case, creature etc. Sometimes the gender name in the language of translation cannot be used from divergences of the communicative components of the meaning. The English word «meal» is widely used in the different styles of speech, and the Ukrainian word «вживання їжі» is not widely used outside the special vocabulary. Therefore, as a rule, the word «meal» is replaced by the concrete «сніданок, обід, вечеря» etc. in translation. For example:

At seven o’clock an excellent meal was served in the dining-room. В сім годин в їдальні був поданий відмінній обід.

It is notable, that the choice of concrete notion is generally determined by the context as in the other cases «a supper could be served at seven o’clock» etc.

Specification is often used when a word with the wide meaning and corresponding connotation is in the target language, as such words can possess a different extent of the use in the source and target languages. The large use of words with the wide meaning is typical for the English language. During translation of such words specification is the very widespread method of translation. For example:

My mother had left her chair in her agitation, and gone behind it in the corner. Схвильована матінка підхопилася зі свого крісла і забилася у куток позаду нього.

The English verbs with the common meaning «to leave» and «to go» cannot be translated in this sentence by the proper Ukrainian verbs «залишити» and «піти». The unacceptability of the translation «Матінка залишила своє крісло і пішла за нього в куток» is obvious, as the Ukrainian language does not describe such concrete emotional situation similarly. The best method to provide the equivalence of Ukrainian translation is specification of the verbs described.

Another sentence should be translated by a similar method, for example:

My old dear bedroom was changed, and I was to lie a long way off. Моєї милої старої спальні вже не було, і я повинœен був спати в іншому кінці дому.

Having arrived after a long absence at home, a boy sees that all in his house changed and became alien to him. The use of direct correspondences would do translation too difficult to understand this English sentence. Why must somebody lie a long way off a bedroom? The context revealed that «to lie» means «to sleep», and «a long way off» just points the other part of the house.

The specification of the English verbs «speaking» such as «to say» and «to tell», which can be translated not only as «говорити» and «казати», but as well as the concrete words «промовити, повторити, помітити, стверджувати, повідомляти, заперечувати, просити» etc. is widespread. For example:

«So what?» – I said. «Ну то й що?» – спитав я.
He told me I should always obey my father. Він порадив мені завжди слухатись мого батька.
The boss told me to come at once. Господар звелів мені прийти негайно.

Generalization is the replacement of the source language unit that has narrower meaning by the target language unit with the wide meaning, i.e. transformation reverse to specification. The created correspondence expresses the gender notion that includes the initial specific one. For example:

He visits me practically every weekend. Він приїжджає до мене майже кожного тижня.

The use of a word with more general meaning helps a translator to avoid the necessity to specify what an author meant «Saturday» or «Sunday», when speaking about «weekend».

Sometimes the concrete name of some object tells nothing to the Receptor of a translation or is irrelevant in the conditions of the given context. For example:

Jane used to drive to market with her mother in their La Sane convertible. Джейн їздила зі своєю матір’ю на ринок в їх машині.
He showed us his old beat-up Navaho blanket. Він показав нам свою обірвану індійську ковдру.

More general designation can be preferable by the stylistic reasons. It is not accepted to indicate growth and weight of characters with punctual exactness in the fiction literature in the Ukrainian language, if it is not connected with the sporting considering only, and combination «а young man of 6 feet 2 inches» in the English language text would be replaced by «молода людина високого зросту» in Ukrainian translations.

A translator sometimes has possibility to choose between concrete and general variant of translation and renders the preference to the latter. For example:

«Who won the game?» I said. «It’s only the half». «А хто виграв?» – питаю. – «Ще не закінчилося».

The regular correspondences to the source language unit by the method of generalization often take place, for example:

Foot Нога
Wrist watch Наручний годинник

Semantic development is the replacement of a word or word-combination of the source language text into the target language one, the meaning of which is logically derived from the meaning of the initial unit. The meanings of the correlated words in the original text and its translation most often turn out to be linked by the cause-and-effect relation. For example:

I don’t blame them. Я їх розумію.
He always made you say everything twice. Він завжди перепитував.

At the use of the method of semantic development cause-and-effect relations often have wider character, but logical connection between two notions is always kept, for example:

Manson slung his bag up and climbed into the battered gig behind a tall, angular black horse. Менсон поставив свою валізу і вліз в розхлябану двоколку, запряжену крупним кощавим чорним конем.

The contextual replacement is obviously necessary in this example, especially during translation of combination «behind a horse», as it is impossible to say in Ukrainian as «Він сів у візок позаду коня».

Translation of «slung his bag up» as «поставив свою валізу» and «behind a horse» as «запряжену конем» and «angular» as «кощавим» is accomplished by the semantic development, although it is difficult to define exactly what connection exist between the corresponding notions in the original text and its translation.

Another example:

He would cheer up somehow, begin to laugh again and draw skeletons all over his slate, before his eyes were dry. Він знову підбадьорювався, починав сміятися і малював на своїй грифельній дошці різні фігурки, хоча очі його ще були повні сліз.

In this example the connection is more obvious.

The basic types of lexical and grammatical transformations include:

1) Antonymous translation.

2) Explication (descriptive translation).

3) Compensation.

The antonymous translation is the lexical and grammatical transformation, at which the replacement of affirmative form in the original text into the negative form in translation or, vice versa, the negative form into the affirmative one, is accompanied with the replacement of the lexical unit of the source language text by the target language unit with the opposite meaning. For example:

Nothing changed in my home town. Все залишилося незмінним у моєму рідному місті.

In English-Ukrainian translations this transformation is used especially often, when the negative form is used with a word that have negative prefix in the source language text. For example:

She is not unworthy of your attention. Вона цілком заслуговує нашої уваги.

The use of negative form with the negative conjunctions «until» and «unless» belong to the antonymous translation. For example:

Additional expenditures shall not be made unless authorized. Додаткові витрати повинні виконуватись лише за особливим дозволом.

Within the framework of antonymous translation the source language unit can be replaced not only by the opposite target language unit, but by the other words and word-combinations that express the opposite thought as well.

It is necessary to take into account that the negation can be expressed by the other devices, for example, by the preposition «without». For example:

He never came home without bringing something for the kids. Приходячи додому, він завжди приносив що-небудь дітям.

The application of antonymous translation quite often combines with the use of other transformations such as lexical or grammatical ones. For example:

The people are not slow in learning the truth. Люди швидко впізнають правду.

The antonymous translation is accompanied by the replacement of part of speech.

Explication or descriptive translation is lexical and grammatical transformation at which the lexical unit of the source language text is replaced by a word-combination that gives more or less complete explanation or determination of the meaning in the target language.

It is possible to pass the meaning of any non-equivalent word in the original text by explication, for example:

Conservationist Прибічник захисту оточуючого середовища
Whistle-stop speech Виступ кандидата у ході передвиборчої агітаційної поїздки

The lack of descriptive translation is its verbosity. Therefore, this method of translation is used the most successfully in those cases, where it is possible to limit the text by short explanation comparatively.

Car owners from the midway towns ran a shuttle service for parents visiting the children injured in the accident. Власники автомашин із міст, які лежать між цими двома пунктами, безперервно привозили і відвозили батьків, які відвідували своїх дітей, що постраждали під час аварії.

Compensation is the method of translation, at which the elements of sense, lost during translation of the source language unit, are passed by some other devices in the text of translation. Thus, the lost sense is filled in or compensated, and, on the whole, the content of the original text is reproduced with greater completeness. The grammatical devices of the source language text are often replaced by lexical ones and vice versa. For example:

«Serve him right», said Sir Pitt; «him and his family has been cheating me on that farm these hundred and fifty years». Sir Pitt might have said, he and his family to be sure; but rich baronets do not need to be careful about grammar, as poor governesses must be. «Він зі своєю сімейкою дурив мене на цій фермі цілих півтора століття!». «Сер Пітт міг би, звичайно, висловлюватись більш делікатно, але багатим баронетам не приходиться особливо соромитися у висловах, не тe що нам, бідним гувернанткам».

The wrong use of a form of pronoun of the third person in the original text accomplishes the essential communicative part and must be somehow reflected in translation. But an attempt to reproduce such mistake in Ukrainian is obviously impossible. At the same time the lost element of content can be successfully compensated, if the other lexical or grammatical devices are used.

Some features of the English common speech can be passed into Ukrainian by no other devices except compensation, for example, addition or omission of vowels or consonants, the absence of concordance between a subject and predicate or some other violation of grammatical rules etc. Such compensation is attained by very simple device. For example:

I’m nothing to you – not so much as them slippers.

The difference between «them» and «those» is difficult to reproduce in translation. But «this loss» is easily compensated by playing up the form of the genitive case of a word «slippers».

Thus, the translation of this sentence can be next:

Я для вас ніщо, гірше за ці туфлі (тобто: гірше цих туфель)

Thus, the notion «transformation» is understand as reorganization by which it is possible to carry out transition from the units of the source language text to units of the target language one.

The division of transformations into lexical and grammatical one is conditioned by the different reasons that cause them.

The necessity of grammatical transformations is caused, above all things, by the distinctions in the structure of two languages, which are revealed in the complete or partial lacks of coincidence.

Lexical transformations are necessary because of the lexical lacks of coincidence or different semantic structure of languages, i.e. the lack of coincidence of meaning of words, different compatibility or absence of words of the corresponding meaning in a language which translation is done at etc.

As a rule, different transformations are carried out simultaneously that means they are combined with each other.

The ability to use them easily and freely is a sign of faithful translation.

The cases of application of translating transformations are well illustrated in the several examples below:

It is commonly stated that a government should resign if defeated on a major issue in the House of Commons which has been made one of confidence. Зазвичай стверджують, що уряд повинœен подати у відставку, якщо потерпить поразку в Палаті Общин щодо якого-небудь серйозного питання, який опозиція вважає питанням про довіру уряду.
Не was introduced to a Mr. Black. Його представили якомусь містеру Блеку.
The Richard who appeared in More’s account was a man highly-strung and capable of both great evil and great suffering.   Той Ричард, якого зобразив у своєму дослідженні Моор, був людиною, що знаходилася у нервовій напрузі і була здатна в однаковій мірі на велике зло і на великі страждання.
England is grey industrial cities-Leeds and Bradford, Newcastle and Birmingham. That’s the England that really counts. Англія – це сірі промислові міста – Лідс і Бредфорд, Ньюкасл і Бірмiнгем. Ось це і є справжня Англія.
The sea was rough and unswimmable. Море бурхливо здіймало хвилі, і плисти було неможливо.
This is a fool of a place. Боже, що за мерзенний городишко!
I want to look into the thing myself. Я хочу переглянути справу самостійно.
Things look promising. Ситуація обнадіює.
It was a stiff pull, but their weariness fell from them as they crouched low to the snow, whining with eagerness and gladness as they struggled upward to the last ounce of effort in their bodies. Витягнути сани на крутий берег виявилося нелœегко, але собаки забули про свою втому і, розпластувавшись на снігу, з нетерпінням і радісним вереском з останніх сил лізли вгору.
I did not believe it until I saw it with my own eyes. Я повірив цьому, лише коли побачив на власні очі.
He was a trifle excited – but that is not him. Він був дещо схвильований, але він майже завжди такий.
And he noticed with sour disfavour that June had left her juice-glass full of juice. І він з досадою помітив, що Джун не торкнулася соку.
The strange resolution of trustfulness he had taken seemed to be animate even his secret thought. Раптом почуття довіритися опанувало усіма його думками.
You are a poor liar! Ти не вмієш брехати!
The door was opened by a middle-aged woman. Двері відчинила жінка середнього віку.