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История On a reader of translation.
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On the source language or the target one.

On the character of the nationally biased lexicon.

On importance of the nationally biased lexicon in a context.

On the character of text.

For example, the nationally biased words are more frequent terms in the scientific texts, consequently are translated as terms; in the popular scientific work it is possible to give some comments according to cognitive directions of a work of art; in adventure literary text the transcription is often used because of the element of exotic things, which is present for this genre.

The decisive moment in a choice between transcription and translation of the nationally biased lexicon is a role of it in the meaning of the text, brightness of its colouring.

When transcribing the source language words and target language expressions fall out of common lexical content, and differ by their foreignness. It violates the balance between the content and form, which are characteristic of faithful translation. Translating the nationally biased lexicon in the other way leads to loss of the characteristic colouring of the source language text and the part of national or historical colouring disappears as a result.

The row of its features is taken into account as units in the lexical systems of the proper languages, including such features as its acquaintance and non-acquaintance, literary and linguistic tradition, its relating to that or the other class by an object, time, place.

The decision of an issue about the choice between transcription and translation depends on the source language and the target one, on their grammatical and word-formative features, on the culture of a language and traditional acceptance or non-acceptance of the nationally biased lexicon for them.

All devices of passing the nationally biased lexicon in translation must be brought into correlation with the measure of acquaintance of the introduced words. It is necessary for readers to get the impression of nationally biased lexicon in the target language as the source language readers do about the nationally biased lexicon in their native language.

There are some examples of translating of the nationally biased lexicon taken from the novel of the renowned American writer Jerome David Sellinger «Above the abyss in rye»:

1) «Tom Collins» – «Том Коллінз» – «прохолодний коктейль із льодом» (транскрипція та пояснення) або «прохолоджуване» (функціональний аналог).

2) «Glider» – «крісло-гойдалка» (функціональний аналог). В тексті роману реалія зовсім не була перекладена, її було випущено.

3) «Mark Cross» – «Марк Крос» (транслітерація).

4) «The Mall» – «головна алея» (описовий переклад) або «бігова доріжка» (контекстуальний переклад).

5) «Daiquiris» – «коктейль з ромом» (описовий переклад) або «дайкірі» (транскрипція).

6) «Five bucks» – «п’ять зелœених» (дослівний переклад, в якому зберігається жаргон) або «п’ять доларiв» (дослівний переклад).

7) «West Point» – «Вестпойнтське військове училище» (транслітерація із додаванням українського закінчення та пояснення) або «Вест-Пойнт» (транслітерація).

8) «D-Day (Disembarkation Day)» – «висадився з нашими військами в Європі» (описовий переклад).

9) «Cowboy general» – «парадний генерал» (описовий переклад першого слова і дослівний переклад другого слова).

10) «Student Adviser» – «старшокласник, був моїм, так би мовити, шефом» (описовий переклад) або «репетитор-старшокласник» (функціональний аналог).

As we can see, the translator used different devices of translation of the nationally biased lexicon. Transcription and transliteration was used if the nationally biased word got status of the internationalism, that means the name of anything or some notion that is good known to the reader of translation. But sometimes, in addition to transcription or transliteration the translator had to add explanation to the nationally biased word, because it is unknown to the reader. The translator used descriptive translation, if in the target language there was no faithful equivalent to pass it in translation.


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