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Иностранные языки Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences with the words according to the text.
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Exercise 7. Match the word in the left column with its synonym out of four given in the right column.

Exercise 6. Decide if the following statements are true or false.

Exercise 5. Give the Ukrainian equivalents to the expressions.

the number of the particles; the result of a complicated history; were abundant in the early universe; produced briefly in laboratories; annihilate or decay; the tightly bound clusters; exist diffusely throughout the universe; this tendency is so pronounced; to be never found in isolation; the reasons why quarks insist on clustering; that attempts to describe how quarks behave; involves the interactions; they bind the quarks together; are unstable under present conditions; they change spontaneously into less massive particles; decay into protons in a few minutes.

1. The particle types haven’t been changed since the origin of the universe.

2. Some types of particles can be produced only in laboratories.

3. Scientists know the exact number of particle types.

4. Quarks and electrons are able to form the tightly bound clusters that we call nuclei and atoms.

5. Photons and neutrinos have the same properties that quarks and electrons do.

6. Of the two, electrons have a greater tendency to cluster together.

7. QCD involves the interactions of particles.

8. When in isolation, neutrinos are unstable.

9. Electrons bind together into more complex and lasting objects.

10. Neutrons can bind with each other.

abundant huge, plentiful, unstable, tight
annihilate forecast, eliminate, create, involve
completely entirely, tightly, obviously, hopefully
complicated unstable ,immense, complex, easy,
immense obvious, huge, complex, creative
involve refer to, annihilate, notice, last
observe enter, speculate, bind, notice,
origin ending, prediction, reason, beginning
prediction complexion, isolation, property, forecasting,
reason ground, speculation, prediction, motivation
universe macrocosm, ground, diversity, tightness

The _______ of the particles of each type in the present _______ is the result of a _______ history. Most of the particle types that were _______ in the early universe have long ago _______. We only observe them when they are produced _______ in laboratories, and then _______ or _______.

In the present universe, _______ and electrons have _______ that allow them to form the _______ _______ clusters that we call nuclei and atoms. Photons and neutrinos cannot do this, and so exist much more _______ throughout the universe.

_______, most of the universe we know is made of quarks and electrons. Of the two, quarks have a greater _______ to cluster together.

The reasons why quarks _______ clustering in this way are not _______ understood. There is a general theory, known as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) that _______ to describe how quarks _______. QCD _______ the interactions of fields _______ with quarks and fields associated with another type of particle called _______. Most physicists believe that when the _______ of this theory are better understood, we will know why quarks cluster as they do.

Ever since the first microsecond after the origin of the universe, quarks have been_______ together, in groups of three, into neutrons or protons. All of the other _______ of quarks or the other quark types, which also can bind together, are _______ under present conditions.