Open Library - открытая библиотека учебной информации

Открытая библиотека для школьников и студентов. Лекции, конспекты и учебные материалы по всем научным направлениям.


Иностранные языки Use the vocabulary practiced in tasks 1 and 2 to make up situations of your own.
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Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of your own.



Text 5

Express your own opinion of the content and expression-plane of the text.

Discuss the text in class.

Present a summary of the text.

Use the vocabulary practiced in tasks 1 and 2 to make up situations of your own.

Find the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of your own.


To create special effects; different in their surface structures; semantically alike in their deep structure; differences of form; introductory phrase; to create a feeling of expectation; essential idea; to trail off to the end; by contrast; indirect and roundabout; to leave altogether unmentioned; a way of avoiding responsibility; to disclaim any personal responsibility for the event; the effect the writer is aiming at; a number of regular ways sentences can be structured; to increase in forcefulness; whatever the cost may be; to expand the main idea; to have the neat structure; unity of content; adjacent.

2. Explain the meaning of the following words and word-combinations:subordinate elements; loose structure; periodic structure; literary style; passive sentences; the choice between active and passive; parallelism; chiasm; climax; anticlimax.

3. Make your own list of key–units and topical vocabulary.

Poetry has its own system of larger organizational units, paralleling those of prose. Instead of the sentence, the basic unit of poetry is the line, or verse, of which there are various lengths, as measured by the number of feet, or rhythmic units.

Lines are combined with various patterns of rime into a stanza, of which only a few types are illustrated here. The simplest kind of stanza is the couplet, consisting of two lines, like this from Tennyson's "Locksley Hall":

Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers, and I linger on the shore,

And the individual withers, and the world is more and more.

The most famous three-line stanza, or triplet, is the terza rima, in which the first and third lines rime with each other while the second rimes with the beginning of the next stanza. Its rime scheme can be represented by the formula aba bcb cdc. An example is Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind":

0 wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being,

Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead

Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing.

There are several kinds of four-line stanzas, or quatrains. The following from Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," with the rime scheme abcb and alternate tetrameter and trimeter lines, is known as a ballad stanza:

All in a hot and copper sky,

The bloody Sun, at noon,

Right up above the mast did stand,

No bigger than the Moon.

The best known five-line stanza is the limerick, which rimes aabba, combining rigor of form with triviality of subject matter:

There was a young fellow of Wight,

Whose speed was much faster than light.

He set out one day

In a relative way And returned on the preceding night.

Rime royal, a seven-line stanza riming ababbcc, is so named because it was used by King James I of Scotland, although its most famous practitioner was Geoffrey Chaucer, whose "Complaint to His Purse" begins, in a slightly modernized version, as follows:

To you, my purse, and to no other wight [person]

Complain I, for ye be my lady dear.

1 am so sorry, now that ye be light,

For certain, unless ye make me heavy cheer,

I would as lief be laid upon my bier.

Wherefore unto your mercy thus I cry:

Be heavy again, or else I'll have to die.

Ottava rima is an eight-line stanza riming abababcc, most brilliantly used in English literature by Lord Byron in Don Juan:

'Tis a sad thing, I cannot choose but say,

And all the fault of that indecent sun,

Who cannot leave alone our helpless clay,

But will keep baking, broiling, burning on,

That howsoever people fast and pray,

The flesh is frail, and so the soul undone:

What men call gallantry, and gods adultery,

Is much more common where the climate's sultry.

The Spenserian stanza of nine lines riming ababbcbcc is named for its origi­nator, Edmund Spenser, but it has been used by other poets, for example, Shelley in "Adonais," an elegy for Keats:

He is made one with Nature: there is heard

His voice in all her music, from the moan

Of thunder, to the song of night's sweet bird;

He is a presence to be felt and known

In darkness and in light, from herb and stone,

Spreading itself where'er that Power may move

Which has withdrawn his being to its own;

Which wields the world with never-wearied love,

Sustains it from beneath, and kindles it above.

The best known of all stanza forms is the sonnet, a fourteen-line poem with two principal varieties. "Ozymandias," cited earlier, is an example of the Italian form with two parts, the first eight lines or octave and the last six lines or sestet. The English sonnet with three quatrains and a final couplet is most famous for its use by Shakespeare, as in the following sonnet rimed ababcdcdefefgg:

That time of year thou mayst in me behold

When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang

Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,

Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.

In me thou see'st the twilight of such day

As after sunset fadeth in the west,

Which by and by black night doth take away,

Death's second self, that seals up all in rest.

In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire,

That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,

As the deathbed whereon it must expire,

Consumed with that which it was nourished by.

This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,

To love that well which thou must leave ere long.

Rime is not indispensable to poetry. Blank verse, while preserving regular meter and line length, makes no systematic use of rime, as in these lines put 'nto the mouth of Satan in Milton's Paradise Lost:

Here we may reign secure; and, in my choice,

To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell:

Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.

Free verse, though it is rhythmical and has a variety of sound effects, aban­dons both strict meter and rime, as in Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass:

A child said What is the grass? fetching it to me with full hands;

How could I answer the child? I do not know what it is any more than


I guess it must be the flag of my disposition, out of hopeful green stuff


Beyond the prose paragraph and the poetic stanza there are still larger organizational units—chapters, acts, books—according to the type of literary work, or genre. Each type has its own characteristic organization, although because genres are literary structures an author has a good deal of freedom in deciding whether he will adhere to or depart from the traditions associated with them. Genres include fictional types, like the short story and the novel; nonfictional types, like the essay and the history; literary forms that imply a performance, like the play and the sermon; poetic forms, like the elegy and the epic; and forms that have some particular purpose, like the myth, designed to explain natural phenomena, and the satire, intended to correct faults. Still larger structures can be found beyond the genre unit; for example, novels are sometimes grouped into trilogies and plays into cycles. Thus the principle of hierarchy reaches above the sentence to take in vast amounts of literary language—indeed, being without upper limits, it constantly expands to meet man's unquenchable thirst for order.

It is easy to fall into the mistake of thinking that lexical and grammatical regularity are inherently valuable and that any departure from them is a sickness of language. The truth is that whereas they are indispensable when language is being put to certain uses—especially its informative, logical uses - a strict adherence to the normal is unnecessary or even undesirable when language is put to other uses, such as its evocative, literary use. It is also true that the kind of literary departure from normal language we all make, for instance in our daily use of metaphor, is one of the important causes of language change. In a real sense poetry makes our language what it is today—and what it will be tomorrow.

It is easy to fall into the mistake of thinking that; to have one’s own system of organization; rime scheme; to be represented by the formula; combining rigor of form with triviality of subject matter; a slightly modernized version; as follows; to cite; to have a good deal of freedom in; depart from the traditions; to imply a performance; to explain natural phenomena; intended to correct faults; to be found beyond the genre unit; the principle of hierarchy; in vast amounts of; without upper limits; unquenchable thirst for order; inherently valuable; indispensable; to be put to certain uses; a strict adherence to the normal; evocative, literary use; literary departure from normal language we all make; one of the important causes of language change; in a real sense; what it is today; what it will be tomorrow.

2. Explain the meaning of the following words and word-combinations:

stanza; couplet; triplet; terza rima; quatrain; limerick; rime royal; ottava rima; Spenserian stanza; sonnet; octave; sestet; fictional types; nonfictional types; a sickness of language/

3. Make your own list of key–units and topical vocabulary