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Иностранные языки Commonly Used Abbreviations
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APPENDIX II

Latin and Greek terms used in English

APPENDIX I

Find the most common idioms in your language, try to find their equivalents in English. Make up sentences or situations of your own using the idioms. Some of them are given below.

Singular Plural
adenoma adenomata
albicans albicantia
amigdala amigdafae
antrum antra
apex apices
apparatus apparatus
appendix appendices
aqua aquae
ascaris ascarides
atrium atria
axis axes
bacillus bacilli
bacterium bacteria
basis bases
bronchus bronchi
cadaver cadavera
calculus calculi
corpus corpora
crisis crises
criterion criteria
cuniculus cuniculi
datum data
diagnosis diagnoses
digitus digiti
dorcum dorci
fibroma fibromata
focus foci
fossa fossae
genus genera
gonococcus gonococci
ileum ilea
medium media
mucosa mucosae
nodus nodi
noxa noxae
os (mouth) ora
os(bone) ossa
papila papilae
pathema pathemata
pes pedes
phenomenon phenomena
polypus polipi
septum septa
spasmus spasmi
sperma spermata
stoma stomata
tarsus tarsi
toxocosis toxocoses
vesicula vesiculae
viscus viscera
zygoma zygomata

Be careful about using abbreviations. Even frequently used abbreviations may have additional meanings that you are not aware of. Notice that even within medicine, similarities and overlaps exist. Be sure to use abbreviations in context, and use the context of abbreviations you encounter to help determine which meaning is intended. Note that+ some abbreviations may be used with or without periods according to local custom; consult a current medical dictionary.

А
a.c. before meals (ante cibum)
A&P auscultation and percussion
A&W alive and well
abd abdomen
ABG arterial blood gas
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
AD right ear (auris dexter)
ad libat pleasure (ad libitum)
ADH antidiuretic hormone
ADLs activities of daily living
AE above elbow
AFP alphafetoprotein
Ag antigen
AHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
AID automatic implantabledefibrillator
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AKamp above knee amputation
alt dieb alternate days
alt hor alternate hours
alt noct alternate nights
AMI acute myocardial infarction
amp ampule or ampere
amt amount
Anesth anesthetic
ANS autonomic nervous system
AP anteroposterior
aq water
ARC AIDS-related complex
ARD acute respiratory disease
AS aortic stenosis or left ear (auris sinister)
ASCVD arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
AU both ears (aures unitas)
AV atrioventricular
В
Ba barium  
ВАС blood alcohol concentration
BBT basal body temperature  
BE below elbow or barium enema  
BIN bintwice a night (bis in noctus)
bil bilateral
BK below knee
BKAmp below knee amputation
BM bowel movement or basal metabolism
BMR basal metabolic rate
BOM bilateral otitis media
BP blood pressure
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy
BR bed rest
BS blood sugar or bowel sounds or breath sounds
BUN blood urea nitrogen
Bx biopsy
С
С Celsius; centigrade
C/S Cesarean section
C&S culture and sensitivity
Ca calcium or cancer
CA carcinoma
CAB coronary artery bypass
CAD coronary artery disease
cal calorie; see kcal
cap capsule
CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CAT computerized axial tomography; also CT
cath catheter, catheterize
CBC complete blood count
CBR complete bed rest
CC chief complaint or cardiac cycle
cc cubic centimeter (same as a ML)
CCPD continuous cycle peritoneal dialysis
CCT cranial computed tomography
CCU coronary care unit
CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen
CF cystic fibrosis
£ gl with correction, with glasses
CHD coronary heart disease or childhood disease
Ch Choicholesterol
CHF congestive heart failure
CHO carbohydrate
CI coronary insufficiency
cib food (cibus)
CIS carcinoma in situ
ck check
CL critical list
cm centimeter
CMA Certified Medical Assistant
CNS central nervous system
CO carbon monoxide
co2 carbon dioxide
comp compound
contra against
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CP cerebral palsy
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CRD chronic respiratory disease
CS central supply
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CT computed tomography
cv cardiovascular
CVA cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
CVD cardiovascular disease
cysto cystoscopy, cystoscopic examination
D
D/C, DC   discontinue
D&C dilatation and curettage
DCC direct current cardioversion
DDS Doctor of Dental Surgery
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration
DES diethylstilbestrol
diag diagnosis
diff differential
dil dilute
disch discharge
disp dispense
DJD degenerative joint disease
DM diabetes mellitus
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNR do not resuscitate
D.O. Doctor of Osteopathy
DOA dead on arrival
DOB date of birth
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
Dr doctor
DR delivery room or digital radiography
DRG diagnosis-related group
DSA digital subtraction angiography
DTs delirium tremens
DVA distance visual acuity
Dx diagnosis
E
  E. coli Escherichia coli
EBL estimated blood loss
EC/IC extracranial-intracranial (bypass operation)
ECG electrocardiogram; also EKG
ECHO echocardiogram
EDC estimated date of confinement
EDD estimated date of delivery
EEG electroencephalogram
EENT eye, ear, nose and throat
Ej elbow jerk
EKG electrocardiogram; also ECG
elix elixir
EM electron microscope or emmetropia
EMG electromyogram
ENT ear, nose, and throat
EOMs extraocular movements
EP ectopic pregnancy or evoked potential
ER emergency room
ERG electroretinogram
EST electric shock therapy
et and
ET esotropia
etiol etiology
EUA examination under anesthetic
exp expiration
expl lap exploratory laparotomy
ext external or extract
F
f orF Female
F. Fahrenheit
F.A.C.P. Fellow of the American College of Physicians
F.A.C.S. Fellow of the American College of Surgeons
FB foreign body
FBS fasting blood sugar
FDG fluorodeoxyglucose
Fe iron
FECG fetal electrocardiogram
FH family history
FHS fetal heart sounds
FHT fetal heart tones
fl fluid
FME full mouth extraction
FP family practice
FRC functional residual capacity
FROM full range of motion
FS frozen section
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
FTG full thickness graft
FTND full term normal delivery
FU followup
FUO fever of unknown origin
Fx fracture
G
g gram
GA gastric analysis or general anesthesia
GB gallbladder
GC gonorrhea
GE gastroenterology
GG gamma globulin
GH growth hormone
GI* gastrointestinal
GLTT glucose tolerance test
gm gram
GP general practice
gr grain
grav I first pregnancy, primigravida
GS general surgery
GTT glucose tolerance test
gtt drops (guttae)
GU genitourinary
GYN Gynecology
H
H hydrogen or hypodermic
h hour
H&P history and physical (exami- nation)
н2о water
HASHD hypertensive arterioscle- rotic heart disease
HB heart block
HBP high blood pressure
HCG human chorionic gonado- tropin
HC1 hydrochloric acid
hct hematocrit
HCVD hypertensive cardiovascular disease
HD hearing distance
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HEENT head, ears, eyes, nose, throat
Hg mercury
hgb hemoglobin
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HLA human leukocyte antigen
HLAC human lymphocyte antigen complex
HPN hypertension
hr hour
hs at bedtime (hora somni)
HSV herpes simplex virus
ht hematocrit or height
HV hospital visit
Hx history
hypo Hypodermic
I
I&D incision and drainage
I&O intake and output
ICCU intensive coronary care unit
ICS intercostal space
ICU intensive care unit
ID infectious disease
IDS immunity deficiency state
IGT impaired glucose tolerance
IH infectious hepatitis
IHD ischemic heart disease
IM intramuscular or infectious mononucleosis
inc Increase
inf inferior or infusion
inj Injection
int &ext internal and external
IO Intraocular
IP Inpatient
IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing
IQ intelligence quotient
IS intercostal space
ISG immune serum globulin
IT inhalation therapy
ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
IU international unit
IUD intrauterine device
IV intravenous or intervertebral
IVC inferior vena cava
IVF in vitro fertilization
IVP intravenous pyelogram
JOD juvenile-onset diabetes (type I)
JRA juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
it joint
JVP jugular venous pulse  
K
к potassium (kalium)
KB ketone bodies
Kcal kilocalorie
kg kilogram
KJ knee jerk
KS Kaposi's sarcoma
KUB kidney, ureter, and bladder
KVO keep vein open  
L
L left or liter
liter
L&A light and accommodation
L&D labor and delivery
lab laboratory
lac laceration
lap laparotomy
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
lat lateral
LBBB left bundle branch block
LD lethal dose
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LE lupus erythematosus or left eye
lg large
LH luteinizing hormone
liq liquid
LK&S liver, kidney, and spleen
LLE left lower extremity
LLQ left lower quadrant
LMP last menstrual period
LOM limitation of motion
LP lumbar puncture or light perception
LPN Licensed Practical Nurse
LSD lysergic acid diethylamide
It left
LUE left upper extremity
LUQ left upper quadrant
LVN Licensed Vocational Nurse  
M
m male or meter
MBC maximal breathing capacity
MBD minimal brain damage
meg microgram
MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
MCT mean circulation time
MCV mean corpuscular volume
M.D. Doctor of Medicine
MD muscular dystrophy
MED minimum effective dose
mEq milliequivalent
MFT muscle function text
mg milligram
mg % milligrams per cent (mg per 100 ml)
MH marital history
MI myocardial infarction
ml or mL milliliter
mm millimeter
mm Hg millimeters of mercury (used for blood pressure)
MR metabolic rate or mental retardation
MRFIT multiple risk factor intervention trial
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS multiple sclerosis
MSL midsternal line
My myopia
myel Myelogram
N
n.b. note well (nota bene)
N/C no complaints
N&V nausea and vomiting
NA not applicable
Na sodium (natrium)
NAD no acute disease or no apparent distress
NB newborn
NED no evidence of disease
neg negative
neuro neurology
NG nasogastric
NICU neurologic intensive care unit
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
noct night
NP neuropsychiatric
NPN nonprotein nitrogen
NPO nothing by mouth (non per os)
NR no response
NREM no rapid eye movements (a sleep phase)
NS not sufficient or normal saline
NSR normal sinus rhythm
NTG nitroglycerin
NYD not yet diagnosed
O
O.R. operating room
O&C onset and course (of a disease)
OB obstetrics
OB-GYN obstetrics and gynecology
ОС office call or oral contraceptive
od every day (omni die)
OD overdose or right eye (oculus dexter)
OGTT oral glucose tolerance test
oint ointment
OM otitis media
OP outpatient
OPD outpatient department
Ophth ophthalmic
Orth orthopedics
OS left eye (oculus sinister)
OS mouth
ОТ occupational therapy
OTC over the counter (drugs)
ou both eyes (oculi unitas)
oz Ounce
P
P pulse
P after
P&A percussion and auscultation
РАС premature atrial contraction
Pap Papanicolaou
paren parenterally
Path pathology
PBI protein-bound iodine
PBO placebo
PBZ pyribenzamine
pc after meals (post cibum)
PCCU post coronary care unit
PCU progressive care unit
PCV packed cell volume
PDR Physician's Desk Reference
PE physical examination
Peds ' pediatrics
PEG pneumoencephalogram
PERRLA pupils equal, round, regular, react to light & accommodation
PET positron emission tomography or preeclamptic toxemia
PFT pulmonary function test
PG pregnant or prostaglandin
PGH pituitary growth hormone
pH acidity, hydrogen ion concentration
PH past history
PI present illness
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PKU phenylketonuria
PLA polylactic acid
PM after death (post mortem) or physical medicine or afternoon
  (post meridian)
РМН past medical history
PMN polymorphonuclear neutrophils
РМР previous menstrual period
PMR paramedic run or physical medicine and rehabilitation
PMS premenstrual syndrome
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or postnasal drip
PNS peripheral nervous system
PO postoperative
po by mouth (per os)
pos positive
post-op postoperatively
pp postprandial (after a meal)
PPBS postprandial blood sugar
PR pulse rate or peer review
PRBC packed red blood cells
preg pregnant
preop preoperative
prep prepare
prn when needed (pro re nata)
pro time prothrombin time
prog prognosis
PROM premature rupture of membranes
PSRO Professional Standards Review Organization
Psych psychiatry
Pt patient
PT physical therapy or paroxysmal tachycardia
PTH parathyroid hormone
PU peptic ulcer
PV polycythemia vera
PVC premature ventricular contraction
PVD peripheral vascular disease
pvt private
PX physical examination
Px prognosis
Q
q every (quaque)
qd every day (quaque die)
qh every hour (quaque hora)
qid four times a day (quater in die)
qm every morning (quaque mane)
qn once every night (quaque nocte)
qns quantity not sufficient
qod every other day
qoh every other hour
qs sufficient quantity (quantum satis)
qt quiet
quad quadrant
R
R right or respiration
R/O rule out
R&R rate and rhythm (of pulse)
RA rheumatoid arthritis or right arm or right atrium
Ra radium
rad radiation absorbed dose
RAI radioactive iodine
RAT radiation therapy
RBBB right bundle branch block
RBC red blood corpuscle (cell) or red blood count
RBCV red blood cell volume
RCA right coronary artery
RD respiratory distress
RDA recommended dietary allowance or recommended daily allowance
reg regular
rehab rehabilitation
REM rapid eye movement (a phase of sleep)
resp respirations
RF rheumatic fever or rheumatoid factor
RFS renal function study
Rh neg Rhesus factor negative
Rh pos Rhesus factor positive
RHD rheumatic heart disease
RLC residual lung capacity
RLE right lower extremity
RMA Registered Medical Assistant
RN Registered Nurse
RNA ribonucleic acid
ROM range of motion or rupture of membrane
ROS review of systems
RP retrograde pyelogram
rpm revolutions per minute
RR recovery room
RSR regular sinus rhythm
RT radiation therapy
Rx prescription or therapy
S
s single
s without
S-A sinoatrial
SC subcutaneous
SCD sudden cardiac death
SD septal defect or sudden death
SDS sudden death syndrome
sec second
sed rate sedimentation rate
SEM scanning electron microscopy
T
TIA transient ischemia attack
TIA—IR transient ischemia attack—incomplete recovery
tid three times a day (ter in die)
tinct tincture
TKO to keep open
TKR total knee replacement
TLC tender loving care or total lung capacity
TND term normal delivery
top Topically
TPR temperature, pulse, respiration
TPUR transperineal urethral resection
tr Tincture
trach Tracheostomy
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
TSS toxic shock syndrome
TUR transurethral resection (of prostate)
TV tidal volume
T Traction
U
u Unit
u&c usual and customary
UA Urinalysis
UCHD usual childhood diseases
UCR unconditioned reflex
UE upper extremity
UG upper gastrointestinal or urogenital
UHF ultra high frequency
UK Unknown
ung Ointment
ur Urine
UR utilization review
URD upper respiratory disease
URI upper respiratory infection
urol Urology
URQ upper right quadrant
USP United States Pharmacopeia
ut diet as directed (ut dictum)
UTI urinary tract infection
UV Ultraviolet
V
VA visual acuity
vag vaginal
VB viable birth
VC vital capacity
VD veneral disease
VDRL Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
VDS venereal disease—syphilis
VHD valvular heart disease or ventricular hi
VI volume index
vit cap vital capacity
VLDL very-low-density lipoprotein
VO verbal order
vol. % volume per cent
VPB ventricular premature beat
VPC ventricular premature contraction
vs vital sign
VSD ventricular septal defect
W
w water
w/f white female
w/m white male
w/o without
Wass Wasserman test
WBC white blood cell or while blood count
wd wound
WDWN well developed, well nourished
WNL within normal limits
wt weight
X
X times, sign of multiplication
XM cross-match
XR x-ray
XT exotropia
Y
YOB year of birth
yr Year
Z
Z atomic number (symbol for) or zero or
       

Таble I

Nouns ending on a consonant or a vowelе +s dog — dogs name — names
  Nouns ending on ss, х, sh, ch, о     +es kiss — kisses box — boxes brush — brushes church — churches tomato — tomatoes
Nouns ending on y with previous consonant letter y→i +es   baby — babies

Plural nouns formation


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