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Read the text to understand what information on the beginning and development of law-international cooperation in the field of human rights is of primary importance or new for you.

Match the following English words and expressions with their



Ask your partner.

1. Using information from the Internet sites (e.g. ) make a presentation (under 150 words) on:

- International organizations;

- International treaties.


1. What international treaties are possibly to be signed in the nearest future? Discuss the question in small groups.

2. What are the main trends of the international law development in the XXI century?

Unit 2. Human Rights Protection in the World and Ukraine Section 1 Beginning and Development of Law-International Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights

1. Answer the following questions:

1. What human rights can you name?

2. What categories of people demand special attention concerning their rights?

Ukrainian equivalents:

1) victorious powers a) меншість
2) incapable of military service b) держави-переможці
3) minority c) бути обов’язковим для всіх сторін
4) to enjoy rights d) непридатний до служби в армії
5) to be binding upon all parties involved e) користуватися правами
6) captured wounded f) поранені полонені

3. Consult the dictionary and read the following words. Pay attention to different types of pronunciation of –c:

[k] [s]

capture agency

the Catholics association

incapable civilian

linguistic peace

occupation principle

sick service


The Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in the Time of War – Конвенція про поліпшення стану поранених під час ведення війни.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – Міжнародний Пакт з громадянськиих та політичних прав.

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights – Міжнародний Пакт з соціальних, економічних і культурних прав.

Throughout the history there were some efforts of the mankind to maintain the human rights by international action – the conclusion of international treaties. It can be traced back to the 17th century, when the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) first established the principle of equal rights for different religions (the Catholics and Protestants in Germany).

In the 19th century, the universal prohibition of the slave trade was an object of international concern which expressed in various treaty arrangements. In 1926 the Assembly of the League of Nations approved the International Slavery Convention leading to complete abolition of slavery in all forms.

It was also in the second half of the 19th century that the conclusion of treaties on the protection of the rights of victims of war began. The Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in the Time of Warprovided that military wounded and sick of any side must be cared for and captured wounded must be sent home if they are incapable of military service (1864).

In some of the peace treaties and in declarations created after World War I, a number of states of Europe and one state in the Middle East (Iraq) were made to accept the obligations toward their racial, linguistic, and religious minorities: all of their nationals were to be equal before the law and wereto enjoy the same political and civil rights. The result of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) was organizing the League of Nations which was of great importance for the development of international law, and also the protection of the particular rights of minorities.

The Treaty of Versailles also established the International Labour Organization (1919) which after World War II became a specialized agency of the United Nations and contributed to the promotion of such human rights as the abolishing of forced labour, the elimination of discrimination in employment and occupation, freedom of association, etc.

At the end of World War II, the victorious powers established the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals. Under its charter, the tribunal had jurisdiction to try not only crimes against peace and war crimes but also “crimes against humanity” committed against any civilian population.

The United Nations Organization was organized in 1945, and proclaimed protection of human rights as one of its leading principles.

In 1946, the United Nations set up the Commission on Human Rights as part of the Economic and Social Council. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was approved by all member countries of the UN General Assembly in 1948. This declaration expressed the hope that people would learn to respect the rights and dignity of others.

In 1966 two very important documents on human rights were adopted by the UN – the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Within Europe, there are also some documents on protection of human rights such as the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the European Social Charter.

The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms creates the effective mechanism of human rights protection – the European Court of Human Rights which decisions are final and binding upon all parties involved.