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Иностранные языки My Speciality is Forestry
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Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

FORESTRY

Four Industrial Revolutions

The first industrial revolution took place in England between 1760 and 1840. Metal became the main engineering material instead of wood, and steam gave man great reserves of power. This power could drive not only railway engines and ships but also the machines which built them.

In the second revolution, from 1880 to 1920, electricity was the technical driving force. It provided power for factories that was easier and cheaper to control than steam. It was marked also by the growing importance of science-based industries such as chemicals and electrical goods, and the use of scientifically-designed production methods such as semi-automatic assembly lines.

The third industrial revolution coincided with the advent of automation – in its inflexible form. In this revolution, the main features were advances in the control of manufacturing processes so that things could be made more cheaply, with greater precision and (often) with fewer people. And this change, which occurred

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1. Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

forestry ['fOrIstrI] лесное хозяйство
reproduction ["rJprq'dAkSqn] воспроизводство
utilization ["ju:tIlaI'zeISqn] использование
resource [rI'sLs] ресурс, запас
plant ['plRnt] выращивать
rational ['rxSnql] рациональный
protect [prq'tekt] защищать
fires ['faIqz] пожары
disease [dI'zJz] болезнь
qualified ['kwOlIfaId] квалифицированный
equipment [Ik'wIpmqnt] оборудование
sphere ['sfIq] сфера
mechanical [mI'kxnIkl] механический
hauling ['hLlIN] перевозка
designing bureau [dI'zaInIN 'bjuqrou] проектное бюро
machinery [mq'SJnqrI] машины (механизмы)
logging mechanization механизация лесозаготовок log hauling перевозка древесины gasoline-motor-powered saw бензопила branch cutter сучкорезная машина loader of original design погрузчик оригинальной конструкции automated sorting transport belts автоматизированные сортировочные транспортеры semiautomatic lines полуавтоматические линии heavy – duty motor trains мощные автопоезда

The main directions in the economic development of Russia in forestry are: to improve the reproduction and utilization of forest resources, to use forest lands more intensively, to pay more attention to planting forest belts, to increase the control over the rational use of forest resources and protect forests against fires, pests and diseases.

The Forestry Technical Faculty of the Bratsk State University trains highly qualified specialists who are to fulfil these tasks.

Graduates from the department for forest engineering work as engineers in the sphere of logging mechanization, wood felling operations and transportation of timber by land and water.

One of the most important features of modern forestry industry is the concentration of production and forest settlements like the well-known complexes in Bratsk and Ust-Ilimsk.

Graduates from the department for forestry machines and equipment work as mechanical engineers at timber industry enterprises, at designing bureaus and research institutes. They are busy with developing and maintaining up-to-date machinery for felling, log making, branching, skidding, loading, road making, rafting and so on.

Russian engineering supplies the timber industry with various machinery: gasoline-motor-powered saws, branch cutters, loaders of original design, heavy-duty-motor trains, semiautomatic lines with automated sorting transport belts.

All the students learn how to get knowledge for their future work. The lectures and seminars are followed by practical work in laboratories of the University, in the forest camps and in the nurseries located in the forest districts or at industrial enterprises. Many students take part in the research work at the departments of the faculty.

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих выражений:

основные направления экономического развития; воспроизводство и использование лесных ресурсов; выращивание лесных полос; обращать внимание на; увеличить контроль над рациональным использованием лесных ресурсов; защищать леса от пожаров, вредных насекомых, болезней; готовить высококвалифицированных специалистов; транспортировка древесины по суше и воде; в области механизации лесозаготовок.


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  • - My Speciality is Forestry

    Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. FORESTRY Four Industrial Revolutions The first industrial revolution took place in England between 1760 and 1840. Metal became the main engineering material instead of wood, and steam gave man great reserves of power. This power could drive not only railway engines and ships but also the machines which built them. In the second revolution, from 1880 to 1920, electricity was the... [читать подробенее]