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Иностранные языки The functions of the Infinitive in the sentence.
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Функции инфинитива в предложении.

THE INFINITIVE

ИНФИНИТИВ

NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the meanings of the verb would.

1. He had a wound that wouldn’t heal. 2. The boy said he wouldn’t eat up his porridge. 3. Jessica cried that she wouldn’t go to bed without her teddy bear. 4. He would say over and over again that he wouldn’t leave his father till he was better. He wouldn’t agree to leave him to the care of the nurses. 5. If you would be happy for a week, take a wife; if you would be happy for a month, kill a pig; but if you would be happy all your life, plant a garden. 6. Tired though she was, sleep wouldn’t come to her. 7. He knew that one day he would win the world. 8. The monks would rise at four and pray and pray and pray. 9. She would often lie awake for a long time after she had gone to bed, thinking and planning. 10. Sometimes Bessie would come up to my lonely bedroom, bringing a piece of cake, sometimes she would tell me a story, and sometimes she would kiss me goodnight.

Exercise 2. Insert used to or would.

1. When we were young we …. spend every summer on the beach. We …. swim, sunbathe, catch crabs. 2. We …. live in this street. 3. I …. meet her and she …. say,

“ I can’t stop. I must get home. ” 4. Mr. Dobson …. be very generous to his servants.

5. She …. often hear him grumbling to himself. 6. What an agreeable town this …. be! 7. On Sundays he …. sleep late. 8. My English friends …. send me cards at Christmas time.

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

1. Я бы очень хотела, чтобы ты не говорила об этом, мама. 2. Мы ждем уже полчаса, а поезда всœе нет. 3. Давай остановимся! Не годится портить наши хорошие отношения. 4. Видишь ли, это выглядело бы странно, если бы ты пошел туда. 5. Мы уговариваем ее уйти на пенсию, но она и слушать не хочет. 6. Он пообещал, что вскоре навестит их. 7. Что-то случилось с замком, и чемодан никак не открывался. 8. Никто не предполагал, что французы выиграют кубок.

Инфинитив - неличная форма глагола, обозначающая действие или состояние безотносительно к лицу, его совершающему.

Инфинитив в английском языке происходит от отглагольного существительного типа русских отглагольных существительных бегание, прыгание, разговаривание. В древнеанглийском языке инфинитив имел всœе свойственные существительному морфологические и синтаксические функции, в частности изменялся по падежам. Свойство это имеет след в наличии современных двух форм инфинитива: без частицы to - инфинитива, происходящего из формы именительного падежа, и с частицей to - инфинитива, происходящего из формы дательного падежа (work - to work). Синтаксические функции существительного сохранились у инфинитива и в настоящее время.

1) Инфинитив может быть подлежащим в предложении:

То sleep in the open air is more than pleasant, it is healthy.

To walk uphill was rather difficult.

To wait there was his only way out.

To speak much was not necessary.

2) Инфинитив может быть прямым дополнением:

Не likes to writewith a fountain-pen.

My sister asked me to go there with her.

I told them not to wait .for me.

3) Инфинитив может быть именной частью составного сказуемого (предикативным членом):

Her duty is to answer all letters.

To go there meant to break the promise.

To study well is to receive good sound knowledge

Our task was to look after the smallest children.

Но у инфинитива есть и глагольные функции в предложении.

1) За инфинитивом следует прямое дополнение:

1 like to read interesting stories.

To write this letter at once is absolutely necessary.

They wanted to buy flowers for their classroom.

2) Инфинитив определяется наречием:

The old woman tried to walk quickly, but failed.

It is necessary to study systematically.

3) Инфинитив может входить в состав сложного сказуемого:

Не must work very hard.

You ought to write her a letter.

My friend could do this work quite well,

They began to speak English last year.

I would rather take this book.


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