Химия Answer the questions просмотров - 225
Solids are usually described as hard, at least compared with liquids, and as having a definite shape. A powder does not appear to have a definite shape; we can make it into a pointed heap or a flat heap, but in a heap of powder we are looking at quantities of grains each of which has a definite shape. On examining a little piece of common salt under a microscope it will be seen to consist of tiny cubes, some of them damaged, but there will be some perfect ones.
All these substances having a fixed shape are called crystals. Thus we can say that a solid is a crystalline substance. It is not always easy to see the crystals, even through a microscope and at one time it was thought that a powder such as chalk was amorphous, a word which means without shape. However, we now know that chalk is a crystalline substance and even metals are made of exceedingly tiny crystals packed very close together. Now, we know that a crystal of common salt is composed of millions of sodium ions and chlorine ions holding together by electrical attraction, and since chemists have been able to "look" inside a very tiny crystal by means of X-rays, it has been discovered that sodium and chlorine ions are always arranged in a very regular pattern in relation to one another.
|inside - всередині compare - порівнювати packed - складений consist of – складатися з будь-чого point- точка damage- пошкоджувати, псувати powder - порошок||exceedingly - надзвичайно regular- вірний, нормальний flat- плаский grain- зерно relation- відношення heap- куча, маса chalk - крейда|
1. Has powder a definite shape?
2. What do we see if we examine common salt under a microscope?
3. What do we call crystals?
4. Is solid a crystalline substance?
5. What can you say about chalk?
6. What is a crystal of common salt composed of?
7. How are sodium and chlorine ions arranged in a crystal?
2. Give synonyms:
quantity, to call, several, to approach, some, to reach, various, to show, to name, different, to indicate, shape, form, characteristic, number, property, to use, value, generally, ordinarily, to apply, amount.
3. Translate the following sentences:
1. Since a little piece of salt has been examined under a microscope, it was established that it consisted of tiny cubes. 2. Many experiments with different solids were carried out in Middle Ages, since then a great many experimental methods have been developed. 3. Radioactivity is a natural process that has been investigated since the end of the last century. 4. The sum of the charges of proton and electron is equal to that of neutron. 5. The free energy of the reactants is equal to that of the products obtained. 6. Common salt consists of tiny cubes, some of them being perfect ones. 7. A mechanical method was followed by an electrical one. 8. The behaviour of aluminium is similar to that of zinc. 9. The values of the boiling-points are those carefully determined by us, and those of the molecular volumes have been taken from Lassen's data.
Dates Ordinal numbers Cardinal numbers Exercise 5. Write down the following in figures.1. twenty-five million seven hundred thirty-two thousand 2. ten million five hundred sixty-seven thousand five hundred fifty-two 3. two million one hundred fifty thousand one hundred thirty-one 4. one million six hundred eighty-two thousand twelve 5. one point three million 6. sixty-seven thousand and five 7. two hundred thousand ninety-five 8. forty-five... [читать подробенее]
1. Exercise 2. Have a look at the adverbs in bolt. Find them in the UNIT and guess their meaning. Read the quotations and translate them. Exercise 1. Find the Russian equivalent. 1. to indulge in 2. to prefer 3. to introduce 4. to expect 5. to proffer 6. to squeeze 7. to exchange 8. to gain A. расценивать B. выражать C. предлагать D. приобретать E. кричать F. следовать G. избегать H.... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 59. Complete the following sentences about the important moments in history using the Past Continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Ex. 58Read the story and rewrite it in the past tense. Ex.57 Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. Ex.56 Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. Then rewrite the following affirmative statements as questions... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 48. Explain the use of the Simple Past in the following sentences. The First TV Soap Opera Ex. 47. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple. The first TV soap opera (a) ……….. (appear) on American television just after the Second World War. Its name (b) ………. (be) Faraway Hill and it (c) ……….. (begin) on the 2nd of October, 1946. A famous Broadway actress, Flora Campbell, (d) ………… (play) Karen St. John, a rich New York woman who (e) ……….... [читать подробенее]
EQUITY In a general sense equity means fairness. In English law, equity means that body of rules originally enforced only by the Court of Chancery. Equity has been described as “a gloss (meaning a supplement) on the common law”, filling in the gaps and making the English legal system more complete. Petitions from persons unable to obtain justice in the common law courts were sent to the King as “fountain of justice”. These petitions were sometimes examined by the King and Council... [читать подробенее]
Task 12. Fill in the blanks. Task 11. Guess the meaning of the international words using in the text. Task 10. Make up the questions. SUBMISSION SEAT 1) something to sitting on, e.g. a chair 2) a place where something is, or is located or based 3) a parliamentary constituency 4) membership in legislative body1) act of accepting the power or authority of another 2) legal theory, opinion presented to a judge or jury 3) the act of presenting something, e.g. a... [читать подробенее]
Task 10. Make up sentences using the following expressions. Judicial branch, according to, the highest tribunal, Chief Justice, to be appointed by, to be approved by, to alter, successful experience, to pass laws, to be authorized, principal duty, to be at stake. 1. What responsibility does the judicial branch have? 2. What kind of court is the judicial power vested in according to the Constitution? 3. Could you describe the Supreme Court of the USA? 4. What do you know about the... [читать подробенее]
Part two Discuss the following before you listen. You will hear an interview with Tim Rice, who wrote the lyrics for Part one The writerJesus Christ Superstar. It was first performed in the 1970s, but hasn’t been performed many times since. Andrew Lloyd Webber composed the music. a) What are some of the main events in the life of Jesus Christ? Who were some of the main characters in his life? b) Why do you think Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd... [читать подробенее]
Ex. 3. Read and translate the text. The Randolf sisters, Sadie and Esther, live just a block away from each other. Sadie constantly complains that the people in town are cold and unfriendly, while Esther finds them warm and pleasant. Although Sadie can’t see it, the difference is in the way they approach those people. Sadie and her husband have a lovely house. It’s filled with beautiful antique furniture and glassware that is so fragile it could easily be broken by a careless guest... [читать подробенее]
Discussion Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Ex. 2.Work in pairs. Ex. 1. Answer the questions. Discussion 1. What are the three types of housing mentioned? 2. What is the ratio of houses to flats in Britain? 3. What has happened to home ownership in Britain? 4. What sort of people in the UK are most and least likely to own their houses? 5. Explain the following: sheltered housing, a mortgage, a slum area.1. What differences are there between housing in... [читать подробенее]